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   2022| October-December  | Volume 13 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 10, 2022

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Cancer and disease diagnosis - Biosensor as potential diagnostic tool for biomarker detection
Gul-e-Saba Chaudhry, Abdah Md Akim, Naila Safdar, Azra Yasmin, Shaheen begum, Yeong Yik Sung, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad
October-December 2022, 13(4):243-247
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_106_22  
Analysis of cancer biomarkers has enormous promise for advancing our molecular understanding of illness and facilitating more precise and timely diagnosis and follow-up care. MicroRNA, exosomes, ctDNA, CTCs, and proteins are only some of the circulating biomarkers that can be detected by liquid biopsy instead of the more intrusive and time-consuming process of doing a tissue biopsy. As the cancer diagnosis bio-markers reveal ultra-low levels in the early stages of the disease, highly sensitive approaches are urgently required. Researchers have taken an interest in a optical biosensor for detecting cancer biomarkers as a potential tool for early disease diagnosis. These techniques have the potential to aid in the development of effective treatments, ultimately leading to a higher rate of patient survival. This review briefly discuss the i) understanding of cancer and biomarkers for early diagonosis purpose ii) Molecular methods and ii) biosensor-based diagnostics. The reseach primary focus on advancement in biosensor design using various concepts ie., Electrochemical, Chemiluminescence and Colorimetric, Surface plasmons (SP), Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), Fluorescence, Fiber-based sensors, Terahertz based biosensors, and Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). As a result of the local electric field amplification around plasmonic (usually gold and silver) nanostructures, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has emerged as a rapid, selective, and sensitive alternative to conventional laboratory analytical methods, making significant strides in a number of biosensing applications but still under developing stage to be used as diagnostic tool in clinical research.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Formulation and characterization of orodispersible tablet of glimepiride
Ahmad AB Yosef Kinani, Hassanien Sagban Taghi
October-December 2022, 13(4):252-260
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_375_22  
The present study is regarding, Glimepiride is one derivatives of sulfonyl urea used in the treatment of Type II DM which classified as class-II (BCS) of high permeability and low degree of solubility. The endeavor is to improve its solubility by solvent vaporization method to enhance the rate of dissolution of glimepiride. Soluplus (Polyvinyl caprolactampolyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft co-polymer) , PVP k40 (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and PEG k5 are blended with the drug in various proportions (1:1,1:3) and prepared Soluplus1, Soluplus2, PEG1, PEG2, PVP1 and PVP2 as solid dispersion. The optimized formula of solid dispersion PVP1 is added to sodium starch glycolate and cross-carmellose. The disintegration profile will appear diminished in the drug release from the dosage form at a determined period of time. Differential scanning calorimetry appeared to a reduction in its crystallinity in solid dispersions. Scanning electron microscope and particle size analysis show a reduction in the drug particle size as solid dispersions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy does not show an interaction between them. Hence, that PVP1 batch will be considered from nine oral dissolving tablets dosage form. Finally, orally disintegrating tablets are estimated for various parameters; for instance, disintegration time, the content of the drug, wetting time, and in vitro release profile show a conventional result. The selected formula F6 shows a good result in disintegration time during 13-second and in-vitro drug release profile achieves 96% at the end of 40 minutes.
  1,149 174 -
Clinical practice guidelines for radiographic assessment in management of oral cancer
LM Abhinaya, Arvind Muthukrishnan
October-December 2022, 13(4):248-251
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_129_22  
In recent years, oral cancer has become a huge solicitude in oncology with its accelerating incidence and has accounted for nearly 50% of cancers seen in India. Screening of patients and lack of awareness among people about the early signs and symptoms are the major factors for a late diagnosis. Although examination of the lesion clinically and diagnosis has a paramount role in early detection, different imaging techniques are required to accurately gauge the extent to local regions. Imaging plays a pivotal role in deciding the apt treatment strategy, assessing the resectability of the tumor, and gauging exact margins for resection. Thus, this study aims to describe a new clinical guideline using various available imaging systems and their importance in oral cancer management.
  1,065 147 -
Preparation and evaluation of oral soft chewable jelly containing flurbiprofen
Lubna Abdalkarim Sabri, Abeer H Khasraghi, Hala Talal Sulaiman
October-December 2022, 13(4):306-311
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_465_22  
Oral jelly is a semisolid preparation that could resolve problem associated with dosage form's swallowing, especially in pediatric and elderly ones. This work aimed to prepare oral flurbiprofen (FBP) jelly to improve patient compliance. Heating and congealing method was used to prepare FBP jelly using three different polymers (pectin, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose). The effect of different concentrations of pectin and sucrose on jelly properties was studied. The results revealed that both pectin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose polymers gave acceptable jelly appearance and consistency. It was also observed that the increase of pectin or sucrose concentration had a significant impact on jelly viscosity. All pectin jellies except formula containing 5.5% pectin and 50% weight by volume (w/v) sucrose exhibited more than 50% and 85% of FBP releasing within 15 and 30 min, respectively. The formula (FP2) consisting of 4.5% pectin and 40% w/v sucrose was selected as optimum formula which had a high percent dissolution efficiency (78.95%) and better consistency during handling. This work succeeded in the preparation of new FBP oral jelly, which can be considered a promising dosage form for enhancement of patient compliance and drug solubility.
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In vivo study of bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose with alendronate as injectable bone substitute composite in osteoporotic animal model
Aniek Setiya Budiatin, Maria Apriliani Gani, Bulan Rhea Kaulika Hadinar Putri, Samirah Samirah, Dyah Hikmawati, Alfian Pramudita Putra, Nily Su'aidah, Junaidi Khotib
October-December 2022, 13(4):261-265
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_266_22  
The injectable bone substitute (IBS) is a self-setting local drug delivery system that adjusts the shape of the bone gap in the fracture. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of IBS composites of bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) and alendronate (Ale) in accelerating bone growth in osteoporotic rats. IBS was made by mixing BHA with gelatin 5%, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 2%, and Ale 10%. The physical properties of IBS were viscosity, injectability, and density tests. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. After 8 weeks, 2 mm gap was made in the right femur of all rats and filled with IBS. The healing process was observed after 6 weeks with X-ray imaging and H and E staining. The obtained results showed viscosity, injectability, and density value of IBS from 30.4 to 39.4 dPa.s, 98.22%–98.64%, and 0.6325–0.8409 g/cm3, respectively. X-ray imaging and histology results proved the condition of osteoporosis in rats with ovariectomy. The addition of BHA-Gel-HPMC-Ale significantly affected the number of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts (P < 0.05). After 45 days of observation, the addition of BHA-Gel-HPMC-Ale showed the highest mean number of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, which were 25.00 ± 3.00, 64.33 ± 11.15, and 5.67 ± 0.58 compared to BHA-Gel-HPMC and positive control groups. The BHA-Gel-HPMC-Ale IBS has the potential to reverse osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the underlying potential of these biomaterials to reverse osteoporosis needs further research.
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Phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside content, and anticancer activity of novel rice bran (Tubtim Chumphae rice)
Rittipun Rungruang, Napassorn Peasura, Nattapon Kaisangsri
October-December 2022, 13(4):312-316
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_458_22  
The objective of this research was to explore the phytochemicals in Tubtim Chumphae rice bran and determine their potential antioxidant and anticancer activities. The rice bran extract contained total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins as the major compounds. In addition, it exhibited the highest DPPH, followed by ABTS+, and FRAP radical scavenging activity. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of the extract on Hep G2, SW620, KATO-III, BT474, and ChaGo-K-1 cancer cell lines was investigated; the obtained IC50 values were 144.6 ± 0.39, 116.9 ± 0.68, 99.6 ± 0.10, 94.4 ± 0.33, and 25.6 ± 0.45 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, the abovementioned results suggest that rice bran extract has potent anticancer activity owing to the induction of cell death in cancer cell lines.
  640 123 -
A cross-sectional study on assessing depression among hemodialysis patients
Aeshah Hamed Albuhayri, Areej Rabea Alshaman, May Naif Alanazi, Ruwaa Muteb Aljuaid, Reem Ibrahem Mobark Albalawi, Shouq Salem Albalawi, Mohammed Omar Alsharif, Nouf M Alharthi, Kousalya Prabahar
October-December 2022, 13(4):266-270
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_322_22  
Depression is the most common disorder of psychiatric illness experienced by hemodialysis patients. Failure to measure depression may diminish their well-being. The main objective of this study is to assess depression in hemodialysis patients. The primary goal is to find out the prevalence of depression among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The secondary goal is to find the association between age, sex, and the severity of depression among patients with CKD. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Nephrology Department of King Fahad Hospital, Tabuk, from December 2021 to April 2022. Depression was assessed using a validated Arabic version of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, which is a self-administered questionnaire to assess depression. The mean age of subjects was 42.13 years (standard deviation = 15.65), most of them were in the age group of 18–29 and 40–49 years (n = 59, 24.58%), and the majority were male (n = 128, 53.33%). The depression prevalence among hemodialysis patients was 74.58%. Majority of the patients were with mild depression (n = 175, 72.92%). No significant difference was found for depression among different age groups or genders with ongoing hemodialysis, in our study. Even though the prevalence of depression was high, mostly they were in the mild category. Depression should be assessed frequently, and psychological counseling should be given to improve the well-being of patients.
  660 72 -
Evaluation of adverse drug reaction in patients warfarin therapy
Norisca Aliza Putriana, Taofik Rusdiana, Tina Rostinawati, Mohammad Rizki Akbar, Dika Pramita Destiani
October-December 2022, 13(4):291-295
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_439_22  
This research aimed to understand the adverse drug reaction (ADR) in heart disease outpatients who were administered warfarin at a hospital in Bandung city. The research was conducted using a cross-sectional design with an observational approach. Subsequently, data were collected from 74 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The causality assessment was made by the Naranjo Algorithm and the incidence of bleeding was classified based on the Bleedscore™. The result showed that the most common ADR were nausea, dizziness, stomach ache, ecchymosis, petechiae, bleeding in the mouth, melena, etc. Furthermore, the INR value was the most significant factor in the incidence of ADR. It was 6.445 using a value of P = 0.001 or a confidence interval of 95%. The most common side effect of warfarin in cardiac outpatients was superficial bleeding, followed by internal bleeding (melena). The INR value is the most significant factor in measuring the incidence of ADR.
  625 77 -
Cytotoxicity and phytochemical profiles of Phyllanthus emblica stem barks with in silico drug-likeliness: Focusing on antidiabetic potentials
Quranayati Quranayati, Muhammad Iqhrammullah, Nurdin Saidi, Nurliana Nurliana, Rinaldi Idroes, Rosnani Nasution
October-December 2022, 13(4):281-285
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_319_22  
Out of numerous reported medicinal plants, Phyllanthus emblica has been reported to possess a strong antidiabetic potential and other pharmacological effects. This research aimed to identify the phytoconstituents in the extracts of P. emblica stem barks and hypothesize their antidiabetic potentials based on in silico drug-likeliness. Simplicia of P. emblica powder was sequentially macerated at room temperature (24 h) using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvents. Phytochemical profiles of the extract were investigated qualitatively using reagents, followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All phytocompounds were then analyzed for their pharmacological properties and predicted bioactivities on molinspiration. Cytotoxicity of each extract was evaluated using the brine shrimp lethality test. As many as 18 compounds (from GC-MS), were identified in all extract samples from P. emblica stem barks. Based on in silico drug-likeliness, methanol extract contained the most potentially bioactive compounds (16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14) Z-dien-15,16-olide; 14-. beta.-H-pregna; and isochiapin B). Isochiapin B was revealed as the only compound that had no violation of the rule of five. All three compounds could hypothetically contribute to the antidiabetic activity of the methanol extract from P. emblica stem barks by inhibiting diabetes-related enzymes and interacting with nuclear receptors. Moderate cytotoxicity of ethyl acetate and methanol extract, respectively, further suggests their bioactivities.
  586 79 -
Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate fractions from polymeric nanoparticles of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-132
Mimin Kusmiyati, Agus Rusdin, Elvi Trinovani, M Iqbal Prawira-Atmaja, Dicki Bakhtiar Purkon, Gurid Pramintarto Eko Mulyo
October-December 2022, 13(4):301-305
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_422_22  
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has benefits. Its main potential content is epigallocatechin gallate, which has many bioactivity and pharmacological properties. However, herbal medicines have limitations on low solubility and stability. A nanoparticle delivery system is a perfect form of active ingredient development, because it can mediate the increase in solubility, dissolution rate, and strength of a targeted delivery system. This study aimed to make and test the formulation of the ethanol and ethyl acetate fraction from green tea leaves in the form of a nanoparticle delivery system using chitosan biopolymer as the primary carrier polymer combined with sodium tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker and then carried out the tests on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. The results showed that the particle size value was 199.7 nm, the zeta potential was-56.7 mV, and the polydispersity index was 0.337. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry test results showed that the C. sinensis fraction was perfectly dispersed molecularly in the nanoparticle system. The results of the cytotoxic test on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line obtained IC50 values for both fractions, namely 10.70 μg/mL (nano ethanol fraction) and 12.72 μg/mL (nano ethyl acetate fraction). This result showed a significant increase in anticancer activity in both fractions compared to those not formulated (P < 0.05). These results also show that the C. sinensis tea fraction formulated in a nanoparticle delivery system has a great potential as a new therapeutic agent for breast cancer.
  590 72 -
Evaluation of proximate composition and biological activities of sompoi (Acacia concinna) leaves in Thailand
Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai, Chutinan Suksaard
October-December 2022, 13(4):317-321
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_443_22  
Acacia concinna leaves are beneficial as medicinal for treating many symptoms and vegetable plants in Thai cuisine. The objective of the study was to analyze proximate compositions and micronutrients value, as well as, to evaluate biological activities including, antioxidant and anticancer activities of A. concinna leaves in Thailand. Proximate composition and micronutrients value were determined relative to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists standard methodology. Antioxidant capacity was examined following oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Anticancer activity was determined following resazurin microplate assay. Proximate composition of A. concinna leaves including crude protein and dietary fiber constituted 6.73 ± 0.03 g and 9.15 ± 0.03 g/100 g sample. Energy constituted 113.00 ± 3.61 kcal/100 g sample. Its leaves also had the highest micronutrients value on calcium, with constituted 321.38 ± 4.29 mg/100 g sample. A. concinna leaves hold antioxidant capacity with ORAC and FRAP values of 20407.55 ± 74.23 μmoles and 1016.38 ± 29.29 μmoles TE/100 g sample, respectively. Its ethanolic extract holds slightly anticancer effect against tested cancerous cell lines. A. concinna can be a healthy alternative source of nutrients with good antioxidant capacity and slightly anticancer properties.
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Problems of purchasing pharmacy products through online orders
Mariia Sergeevna Soboleva, Ekaterina Efimovna Loskutova, Irina Vladimirovna Kosova
October-December 2022, 13(4):286-290
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_454_22  
Online pharmacy services and online ordering of pharmaceutical products are in demand, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The problems of the purchase of pharmacy products through online orders in the Far Eastern Federal District were analyzed. Sociological survey of the population (n = 3789) was carried out. Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient was used. Drugs, dietary supplements, hygiene, and care items are most often purchased in online pharmacies. There is a correlation with the female sex, which may be related to care about family/loved people. The purchase of prescription drugs through e-pharmacies is also more often in demand among women and older patients. Among prescription drugs, the order of drugs used in the treatment of coronavirus infection and its complications (antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, gastroenterological, and hormonal) is widespread. The problems of e-pharmacies identified due to the study are the lack of proper control over prescription drugs, low role of the pharmaceutical worker in compliance of the patient, and frequent refusals of Internet orders. It is necessary clarify the regulatory status of e-pharmacies and the role of pharmaceutical specialists in it, to reduce the possibility of error in the preparation and/or assembly of orders, to reduce the risk of the presence of defective goods. These ways can increase customer loyalty to this service.
  484 64 -
Ethanolic extract of Lannea coromandelica stem bark: Histopathology and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the rat's gastric
Achmad Ramadhan, Hastuti Herman, Sutrisnawati Sutrisnawati
October-December 2022, 13(4):296-300
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_475_22  
This study determined the efficacy of extract of the stem bark of Lannea coromandelica (ESBLc) on histopathology and inflammatory cell infiltration in the gastric of rats induced by mefenamic acid. We grouped 20 rats (Rattus norvegicus) into 5; Group 1 (positive control, mefenamic acid + sucralfate suspension), Group 2 (negative control, mefenamic acid), Group 3 (mefenamic acid + ESBLc 1575 mg/kg), Group 4 (mefenamic acid + ESBLc 3150 mg/kg), and Group 5 (mefenamic acid + ESBLc 3600 mg/kg). The dose of mefenamic acid used was 23.25 mg/kg, given orally for 7 days. Gastric histopathological observations were carried out qualitatively, and inflammatory cell infiltration was analyzed quantitatively by one-ay ANOVA. The qualitative and quantitative analysis results showed that ESBLc had efficacy in restoring damaged gastric tissue of rats; statistically, 3150 mg/kg and 6300 mg/kg effectively reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. ESBLc recovered the function of gastric organs of Rattus norvegicus L. induced by mefenamic acid, including improved mucosa and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the gastric. The doses of ESBLc, which effectively reduced inflammatory cell infiltrations, were 3150 mg/kg and 6300 mg/kg BW.
  470 48 -
The effectiveness of forest honey toward symptoms of atrophy patients: Study of ear nose and throat-head neck and dermatology venereology
Asrawati Sofyan, Christin R Nayoan, Andi Nur Asrinawaty
October-December 2022, 13(4):271-275
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_359_22  
The effectiveness of forest honey in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) improvement in allergic rhinitis patients and index Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) patients were discovered. It was an experimental study with a pretest–posttest design. A total of 20 people with atopy (15 people with allergic rhinitis and five people with AD) were given forest honey in the morning (1 ml × 10 ml dose) for 8 weeks and 20 atopy patients without forest honey. TNSS and SCORAD index were evaluated before the intervention, week 2, week 4, and after the intervention (week 8). The mean TNSS before treatment was higher in the honey group, namely 7.73, and a significant decrease after 8 weeks of intervention, namely 2.73 with P = 0.000. The nonhoney group showed that there was no significant difference after 8 weeks with P = 0.888. The SCORAD values of the honey and nonhoney groups had significantly different values from week 0 to week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 0 to week 8 (P = 0.003). Forest honey can give as an additional therapy for patients with allergic rhinitis and AD.
  470 44 -
Anabasis articulata exerts an anti-arthritic effect on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats
Zaid Hamzah Abdulhusain, Makarim A Mahdi, Waleed K Abdulsahib, Layth S Jasim
October-December 2022, 13(4):276-280
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_440_22  
Anabasis articulata (AA) is commonly found in the Iraqi desert and is utilized in traditional medicine to cure kidney infections, eczema, fever, and diabetes. The paper aimed to identify the anti-arthritic impact of AA on arthritis models in rats. Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) was used intradermally (ID) for the induction of arthritis. The author classified animals into four groups randomly: The first group took normal saline (control), the second group received AA orally for 14 days before induction and continue 17 days after induction, the third group was induced by CFA and received normal saline orally (model group), and the fourth group took AA orally 17 days after induction. AA administration increased body weight (BW) but decreased arthritis index (AI), histopathological scores, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in synovial cells. AA has an important antiangiogenesis and anti-arthritic activity in arthritis model rats.
  422 54 -
Nanomolar activity of 4-hydrazinylphenyl benzenesulfonate against breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 cell lines
Riska Prasetiawati, Syahrul Hidayat, Adel Zamri, Muchtaridi Muchtaridi
October-December 2022, 13(4):322-328
DOI:10.4103/japtr.japtr_435_22  
Hydrazine is an alkaline reduction compound which is widely used in synthesis. Based on the structure–activity analysis, to elicit antitumor activity, the presence of the N-methyl group is an absolute requirement. The aim of the research is to synthesize a new hydrazine derivate compound that has potency as a novel anti-breast cancer. 4-hydrazinylphenyl benzenesulfonate was synthesized employing reduction and diazotization methods. Structure characterization was carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), C13-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), H1-NMR, and High Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (HR-TOF-MS). The anti-cancer activity of this compound against breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cell line was determined using a PrestoBlue viability assay. The new of hydrazine derivative, 4-hydrazinylphenyl benzenesulfonate, has been successfully synthesized. The reduction and diazotization methods have been successfully used in the synthesis of new compound of hydrazine derivatives. Structure characterization of 4-hydrazinylphenyl benzenesulfonate was established using FTIR, C13-NMR, H1-NMR, and HR-TOF-MS. The anti-cancer activity of this compound against breast cancer MCF-7 cell line was determined using a PrestoBlue viability assay with IC50 0.00246 μg/mL or 9.32 nM. In conclusion, 4-hydrazinylphenyl benzenesulfonate was successfully synthesized as a new candidate for anti-breast cancer compound.
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