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   2020| April-June  | Volume 11 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 22, 2020

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Formulation of anti-acne concealer containing cinnamon oil with antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes
Jinmica Veerasophon, Pattana Sripalakit, Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya
April-June 2020, 11(2):53-58
This study aimed to develop an anti-acne concealer containing essential oil with anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity. Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon oil, galangal oil, and eucalyptus oil against P. acnes DMST 14916 was assayed using agar disc diffusion and the broth dilution method. Cinnamon oil showed the maximum inhibitory activity against P. acnes with a clear zone diameter of 36.75 ± 1.06 mm, compared to 14.67 ± 0.58 and 41.83 ± 1.04 mm for tea tree oil and clindamycin, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of cinnamon oil was 5 mg/mL. Among five formulations of concealer incorporating 0.5% w/w cinnamon oil, F4 provided good texture, coverage, and spreadability with anti-P. acnes activity and stable under determined storage conditions. Cinnamon oil could be a promising cosmetic ingredient for anti-acne products, and F4 concealer may be useful for both covering skin imperfections and the management of acne.
  3,390 714 4
Beneficial effects of green coffee and green tea extract combination on metabolic syndrome improvement by affecting AMPK And PPAR-α gene expression
Mifetika Lukitasari, Dwi Adi Nugroho, Mohammad Saifur Rohman, Nashi Widodo, Arta Farmawati, Pramudji Hastuti
April-June 2020, 11(2):81-85
Effect of green coffee and green tea extract on metabolic syndrome. To explore green coffee and green tea extract combination effect on metabolic profile and blood pressure improvement through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) gene expression modulation. Experimental laboratory research with pre- and post-control group design. Twenty-five metabolic syndrome rats model were grouped into five groups (n = 5): standard control (normal), metabolic syndrome (SM), green coffee extract (GC), green tea extract (GT), and combination green coffee and green tea extract (CM). The extract was given during 9 weeks. Serum glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and systolic blood pressure level were analyzed before and after the extract administration. At the end of the study, PPAR-α and AMPK-α2 gene were analyzed. Independent t-test. CM group had significantly higher PPAR-α, and AMPK-α2 gene expression compared to those of SM, GC, and GT group. Green coffee and green tea extract combination administration improved metabolic profile and blood pressure on metabolic syndrome through affecting PPAR-α and AMPK-α2 gene expression.
  2,152 347 6
Epidermal growth factor in sacran hydrogel film accelerates fibroblast migration
Nasrul Wathoni, Taofik Rusdiana, Aliya Nur Hasanah, Arvenda Rezky Pratama, Maiko Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko, Ahmed Fouad Abdelwahab Mohammed, Bayu Winata Putera, Hidetoshi Arima
April-June 2020, 11(2):74-80
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) accelerates epidermal regeneration, and it is widely studied as a wound-healing agent. However, the special carrier for the topical administration of EGF is urgently needed to deliver EGF on the wound site. In a preceding study, sacran hydrogel film (Sac-HF) showed a possible use as a dressing material for wound healing, as well as a good capability as a drug carrier. In the current study, we prepared Sac-HF containing EGF (Sac/EGF-HF) and then characterized their physicochemical properties, including thickness, swelling ratio, degradability, tensile strength, and morphology. In addition, we have also conducted thermal and crystallography studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro influence of Sac/EGF-HF on cell migration using a fibroblast cell line. Morphology study confirmed that the casting method used for the film preparation resulted in a homogeneous film of Sac/EGF-HF. Furthermore, EGF significantly increased the thickness, tensile strength, and degradability of Sac/EGF-HF compared to Sac-HF. Sac/EGF-HF had a lower swelling ability compared to Sac-HF; this result corroborated the tensile strength result. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction and DSC results showed that Sac/EGF-HF had an amorphous shape. The in vitro studies revealed that Sac/EGF-HF induced the fibroblast migration activity. These results conclude that Sac/EGF-HF has the potential properties of HF for biomedical applications.
  2,022 256 4
Real-time monitoring of rhamnose induction effect on the expression of mpt64 gene fused with pelB signal peptide in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)
Sri Agung Fitri Kusuma, Ida Parwati, Toto Subroto, Yaya Rukayadi, Tina Rostinawati, Muhammad Yusuf, Muhammad Fadhlillah, Laily D Tanti, Risa R Ahyudanari
April-June 2020, 11(2):69-73
In this research, Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) harboring an expression vector constructed with a rhamnose-inducible promoter and a pelB signal peptide was used as a host cell to produce MPT64 protein. The objective of this research was to figure out the optimum time of mpt64 gene expression through real-time monitoring of MPT64 protein production and distribution in host compartments. The mpt64 expression was regulated by the rhamnose presence at a concentration of 4 mM. The real-time isolated protein was monitored using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in denaturation condition. Based on real-time monitoring, the MPT64 protein (24 kDa) in the cytoplasm was optimum detected at 24 h after induction. For periplasmic fraction, the protein was detected at 4 h after induction but thinning at 15 h after induction. At 16 h after induction, the MPT64 protein band was found in the medium with increasing concentrations until 24 h. Thus, it can be concluded that the mpt64 gene expression was regulated in the presence of rhamnose as an inducer, and the proteins were shown to be translocated throughout the host cell compartment with different levels of protein accumulation at different times, according to the role of pelB as a signal peptide.
  1,847 342 -
An improved method for measurement of testosterone in human plasma and saliva by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Syed N Alvi, Muhammad M Hammami
April-June 2020, 11(2):64-68
The aim of the study was to develop and validate a practical assay of clinically relevant testosterone levels in human plasma and saliva. We performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis on Atlantis dC18 steel column using a mobile phase of 2-mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile (20:80, v: v) that was delivered at 0.3 ml/min. After adding d3-testosterone as an internal standard (IS), we extracted plasma and salivary samples with methyl tert-butyl ether. Mass spectrometry was performed in electrospray positive-ion mode. Targeted ion transitions were examined at m/z 289.18 → 97.04 and 292.24 → 97.04 for testosterone and IS, respectively. We validated the method according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Elution times for testosterone and IS were both around 1.35 min. Testosterone level was linearly associated (r2 = 0.9975 and 0.9958) with peak area ratio of testosterone to IS between 0.5–50 ng/ml and 10–400 pg/ml in plasma and saliva, respectively. The coefficient of variation and bias were ≤12.6% and ≤±12.1% in plasma and ≤10.2% and ≤±5.3% in saliva. The extraction recovery of testosterone was ≥92% from plasma and ≥94% from saliva. Testosterone was stable (≥91%) for 24 h at room temperature and for 8 weeks at −20°C in both plasma and salivary samples. We report a simple, validated, UPLC-MS/MS assay that can be used to determine clinically relevant levels of testosterone in human plasma and saliva.
  1,854 307 3
The optimization method for synthesis of technetium-99m-luteolin as radiotracer in the development of cancer drugs from flavonoid
Danni Ramdhani, Maula Eka Sriyani, S Fairuz Nabila
April-June 2020, 11(2):59-63
The aim of this study is to find the optimum conditions of labeling luteolin flavonoid compounds with technetium-99m (99mTc) to meet the purity requirements stated in the United States Pharmacopeia. This compound is expected to be a potential radiotracer compound for diagnosing cancer. The optimization method in labeling luteolin with technetium determines the parameters such as pH, SnCl2.2H2O, genistein concentration, and incubation time. Optimization results of Technetium-99m-luteolin labeling obtained optimum pH conditions 8, the amount of SnCl2.2H2O as a reducing agent 60 μL, the optimum amount of luteolin 6 mg/ml, and the optimum incubation time is 30 min. This optimum condition obtained a99mTc-Luteolin radiochemical purity yield of 94.15%. The radiochemical purity percentage of the99mTc-Luteolin compound has fulfilled the requirements listed at United States Pharmacopeia, which is ≥90%.
  1,584 310 1
Synthesis and characterization of green tea paste nanoparticles based on wet milling
Yuly Peristiowati, Zauhani Kusnul
April-June 2020, 11(2):86-88
This study aims to analyze the synthesis of green tea herbs in the nanoform. Green tea is divided into three grades, namely Grade A, B, and C. Making pasta samples is done by wet milling technique. The tea paste sample was characterized by particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscope methods. Grade A green tea has a grain size of 77,014 ± 50,759 nm. Grade B green tea has a particle size of 12,987 ± 7,674 nm. Grade C green tea has a particle size of 4409 ± 5379 nm. It was concluded that the difference in grade of green tea determines the structure and size of the particles formed. Thus, the wet milling technique can be an alternative in making green tea nanoparticles for industrial scale.
  1,391 272 -
Terror of 10 MB, a cross-sectional study investigates the regulation to the prospective of medical device
Krishan Kumar Bhardwaj, K Bangarurajan, Tanveer Naved, Satyendra Kumar Rajput
April-June 2020, 11(2):89-94
An instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, implant, in vitro reagent, a component part or accessory which Intended for use in diagnosis of disease or other condition, or in the cure, mitigation and treatment or prevention of disease is called medical devices. Medical devices under new rule classified as Class A (low risk), Class B (low moderate risk), Class C (moderate high risk), and Class D (high risk) commemorating the notification of January 31, 2017 of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare which is conformity with Global Harmonisation Task Force framework. As per make in India program, the industry of medical devices is USD 5.2 billion and is contributing 4%–5% to the USD 96.7 billion Indian health-care industry. A total of 750–800 medical device manufacturers in India, an average investment of Rs 170–200 million and an average turnover of Rs 450–500 million. An online licensing portal of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) called “Sugam portal” has been launched on November 14, 2015, to file application and grant permission of registration exclusively for Medical Device CDSCO MD Online portal. By making the document submission easier, there are lot of challenges also present in “Sugam-online Portal.” One of the main challenges in Sugam Portal is that there is no provision to upload files greater than 10MB file size. The current study addresses the issues and challenges faced by medical device industry and regulators with their potential solutions and recommendations.
  1,312 217 -