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   2019| October-December  | Volume 10 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 1, 2019

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In vitro anticancer activity Annona squamosa extract nanoparticle on WiDr cells
Amaq Fadholly, Annise Proboningrat, Regina Purnama Dewi Iskandar, Fedik Abdul Rantam, Sri Agus Sudjarwo
October-December 2019, 10(4):149-154
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_10_19  PMID:31742114
This study aimed to prepare Annona squamosa leaf extract-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (nano-ASLE) against human colon cancer (WiDr) cells. Nano-ASLE was made with ionic gelation method. Four concentrations of the nano-ASLE (50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide were prepared on WiDr cells to determine the IC50 value using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Then, it was divided into three groups of concentration of IC50, 2IC50, and 4IC50 and continued with analysis of caspase-3 expression and cell cycle arrest. The results of particles size were obtained 535.1 nm and showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 292.39 μg/mL. The expression of caspase-3 increased significantly and caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis on WiDr cells. Further studies are needed to obtain the loading efficiency, release of drug concentration, and in vivo study of nano-ASLE to suppress WiDr cells.
  2,489 511 1
Effects of diabetic pharmacotherapy on prolactin hormone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Bane or Boon
Huda Abdulbaki Rasheed, Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb, Nawar Raad Hussien, Marwa S Al-Nami
October-December 2019, 10(4):163-168
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_65_19  PMID:31742116
Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone secreted from the anterior part of the pituitary gland which was implicated as a diabetogenic factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate prolactin serum levels in patients with T2DM regarding the effect of diabetic pharmacotherapy. Eighty patients with T2DM compared with 25 male healthy controls were recruited and divided into four groups: Group I – 29 patients with T2DM treated with metformin, Group II – 30 patients with T2DM treated with glyburide, Group III – 21 patients with T2DM treated with glyburide plus metformin, and Group IV – 25 control male healthy patients. Prolactin serum levels were high in patients with T2DM compared with controls (P < 0.01). Prolactin serum levels were higher in glyburide-treated patients compared with metformin-treated patients (P < 0.01). This study concludes that high prolactin levels in patients with T2DM are linked with diabetic complications and regarded as a beneficial phenomena to overcome IR and diabetic complications. Metformin but not glyburide reduced prolactin levels due to the improvement of insulin resistance.
  2,586 327 3
Development and validation of spectrophotometric procedure for quantitative determination of flavonoid content used to control the quality of mixture herbal product
Olga Alekandrovna Smyslova, Dmitry Olegovich Bokov, Olga Georgievna Potanina, Tatyana Mikhailovna Litvinova, Irina Alexandrovna Samylina
October-December 2019, 10(4):155-162
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_61_19  PMID:31742115
Species, known as mixture herbal products, are compositions of several types of crushed, sometimes whole, medicinal plant materials with additives; they are a widely used dosage form in the Russian Federation. A large range of species are produced at the pharmaceutical companies. In pharmacopoeial analysis, the most popular and widely used method for the determination of flavonoids, suitable for the standardization of species, is the method of differential spectrophotometry, based on the complexation of flavonoids with aluminum chloride. In accordance with modern requirements for the drugs production, the validation of analytical methods is a prerequisite for the creation of pharmacopoeial monographs projects regulating the quality of pharmaceutical substances of plant origin. Therefore, it is necessary to validate analytical methods for their intended use in evaluating the drug quality. This article discusses/presents the main stages of development and validation (by parameters: accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity) of the methodology for determining total flavonoid content using original species “Fitourol” as a model.
  2,318 432 1
Development of dermopharmaceutical forms based on the fruit of Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) for the treatment of dermatophytes
Koffi Armand Angely, Tuo Awa, Aka Sandrine Armelle, Yeo Alain, N'Guessan Clemence, N'Guessan Alain, Kouassi Kouakou Eugène
October-December 2019, 10(4):143-148
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_388_18  PMID:31742113
Our work was to develop an ointment and a lotion from the fruit juice of Alchornea cordifolia for the treatment of dermatophytes. The juice from the cold pressing of the fruit pulp of A. cordifolia was lyophilized. The ointments and lotions obtained from the lyophilizate have been evaluated in vitro on different Trichophyton species (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton soudanense, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) according to two techniques, incorporation and direct connection.In vivo tests on white mice were performed after T. mentagrophytes infestation on scarified skin parts. The reference substance was griseofulvin. The 125 mg/ml lyophilizate solution of the fruit pulp showed an activity identical to that of the 125 mg/ml solution of griseofulvin. The lotions were made with ethanol at different degrees and at concentrations of 1/50 and 1/100. Ointments at different concentrations of the lyophilizate (20%, 33%, and 50%) were made with different types of excipients. All lotions and ointments showed in vitro antifungal activity identical to that of griseofulvin up to 16 and 30 days of incubation. The ointments showed better in vivo activity compared to lotions, and the 50% vaseline-based ointment revealed an activity identical to that of griseofulvin, with a healing time of 8 days. The lyophilizate of A. cordifolia fruit juice was formulated as an ointment and lotion, maintained a good antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo on Trichophyton species, compared to griseofulvin.
  1,741 557 -
Potential antimicrobial properties of streptomyces isolated from Sammuk Mountain soil, Chonburi Province, Thailand
Paranee Sripreechasak, Anan Athipornchai
October-December 2019, 10(4):195-199
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_55_19  PMID:31742121
An infection of pathogenic microorganisms can create a big problem for human health. This has triggered the need for discovery and development of antibiotic drugs with altered modes of action. Approximately 45% of antibiotic drugs are derived from Streptomyces, which are the most commonly isolated actinomycete genera. The present investigation aimed to search for and study antimicrobial-producing actinomycetes isolated from soil samples from Sammuk Mountain, Chonburi province, Thailand. A total of 50 isolates from six soil samples were obtained and their actinomycetes were better isolated using humic acid-vitamin agar medium (64.0%) than starch casein nitrate agar medium (36.0%). In addition, the secondary metabolites produced from 13 isolates (26.0%) exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. Thus, Sammuk Mountain soil is an important source of antibiotic-producing actinomycetes.
  1,329 283 1
Antimicrobial activity of a novel polyherbal combination for the treatment of vaginal infection
Shiv Kumar Yadav, Gaurav K Jain, Avijit Mazumder, Roop K Khar
October-December 2019, 10(4):190-194
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_3_19  PMID:31742120
The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (AI), Cichorium intybus (CI), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) against bacterial and fungal pathogens responsible for the vaginal infections. The AI, CI, and TFG were selected to include antimicrobial and antifungal action against wide range of microbes. The different extracts of the herbs were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity by well diffusion assays. Based on the results, the combination was selected and evaluated, “polyherbal antimicrobial (PHA).” The developed PHA extract demonstrated synergistic broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities including antibacterial and antifungal activity (minimum inhibition concentration: 5–7 mg/ml).
  1,314 259 1
Sub-chronic toxicity of Garcinia atroviridis Griff Fruit's ethanol extract on Wistar rats (Ratus norvegicus)
Tiana Milanda, Asti Destilia Safrudin, Galih Samudra, Sri Adi Sumiwi, Muchtaridi Muchtaridi
October-December 2019, 10(4):178-183
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_70_19  PMID:31742118
Garcinia atroviridis Griff. (GA) is a tropical fruit that commonly used as a traditional medicine to this day. This study was conducted to determine the sub-chronic toxicity effect of GA fruits ethanol extract on body weight, clinical hematology and biochemical parameters, and organ's histopathology. This study is an experimental research by oral treatments for 90 days with completely randomized design. The treatment group consists of five classes. Each class was given the treatment with a dosage of 50 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW, 800 mg/kg BW and satellite group with 2% PGA, or 800 mg/kgBW. Based on ANOVA and advanced Tukey test results using SPSS, the hematological parameters such as mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and white blood cell had significant differences with the control group. In the biochemical parameters, the serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase values and triglycerides (in male rats), serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and creatinine (in female rats) had significant differences with the control group. In conclusion, GA fruits ethanol extract is safe and non toxic to body weight, clinical hematology and biochemical parameters, and histopathology of ten organs.
  1,273 209 -
Quality evaluation with reference to clitoriacetal and in vitro antioxidant activities of Clitoria macrophylla root
Yamon Pitakpawasutthi, Maneewan Suwatronnakorn, Somchai Issaravanich, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
October-December 2019, 10(4):169-177
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_67_19  PMID:31742117
Clitoria macrophylla Wall. (syn. Clitoria hanceana Hemsl.), is commonly known in Thai as Nontai-yak, An-chan-pa, or Ueang-chan-pa, which belongs to Leguminosae family. According to traditional Thai medicine, the root has been used for the treatment of skin diseased as well as for pest control in horticulture and animal husbandry. The aim of this study is to investigate for the pharmacognostic specification, the clitoriacetal content, and in vitro antioxidant capacities of C. macrophylla roots from 12 different sources throughout Thailand. Clitoriacetal content was quantitatively analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, β-carotene bleaching assay, total phenolic, and total flavonoid contents. The pharmacognostic specification of C. macrophylla roots in Thailand was established. The loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water contents should be not more than 6.40%, 12.29%, 8.89%, and 8.16% of dry weight, whereas ethanol and water-soluble extractive values should be not less than 4.95% and 14.72% of dry weight, respectively. Furthermore, the clitoriacetal content of C. macrophylla roots determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis was found to be 2.20 ± 1.31 and 2.22 ± 1.16 g/100 g of dry roots, respectively. The clitoriacetal contents of both methods were not significantly different using paired t-test. Moreover, the ethanolic extract of C. macrophylla roots showed its antioxidant potential compared to the standard butylated hydroxyl toluene and quercetin.
  1,139 225 1
The signal transduction of xanthone as a protector on 2-methoxyethanol-induced cardiac cell damage in mice
Ernawati , Reny I'tishom, Sri Agus Sudjarwo
October-December 2019, 10(4):184-189
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_57_19  PMID:31742119
This research aims at investigating the role of antioxidant of xanthone on 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME)-induced cardiac cell damage in mice. Forty mice were grouped into: (1) The control group (mice were given with distilled water), (2) the ME group (mice were given with 2-ME 200 mg/kg BW orally), and (3) the treatment group (mice were given of xanthone with doses 60 mg, 120 mg, 240 mg/kg BW orally and were also given 2-ME 200 mg/kg BW). Their blood samples were taken to measure the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB). Heart tissues were also taken to determine the malondialdehyde (MDA), histological findings of heart damage, and the immunohistochemical of the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The administration of 2-ME resulted in a significant increase level of the LDH, CK-MB, MDA, and a decrease in SOD and GPx expression were compared with the control group. The 2-ME also induced loss of the normal structure of heart cells and necrosis. However, treatment with the xanthone, only dose 240 mg/kg BW significantly decrease the level of LDH, CK-MB, MDA, and increase SOD, GPx expression. The xanthone 240 mg/kg BW also demonstrated significantly improved heart cell damage. From the results, it is concluded that the xanthone are a potent antioxidant in against 2-ME-induced cardiac toxicity in mice, through increasing SOD and GPx expression, and also inhibiting LDH, CK-MB and MDA.
  1,129 164 -