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   2019| April-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 12, 2019

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Antibacterial activity of cinnamon essential oils and their synergistic potential with antibiotics
Yassine El Atki, Imane Aouam, Fatima El Kamari, Amal Taroq, Kaotar Nayme, Mohammed Timinouni, Badiaa Lyoussi, Abdelfattah Abdellaoui
April-June 2019, 10(2):63-67
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_366_18  PMID:31041184
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) essential oil (EO) alone and in combination with some classical antibiotics against three multidrug-resistant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to search a possible synergy. The antibacterial activity of all tested compounds was determined by agar disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assays. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of cinnamon EO in combination with these antibiotics. Fractional inhibitory concentrations were calculated and interpreted as synergy, addition, indifferent, or antagonism. A synergistic interaction was shown against S. aureus with the combination cinnamon EO and ampicillin or chloramphenicol and against E. coli when cinnamon EO was combined with chloramphenicol. However, the combination of cinnamon oil and streptomycin displayed additive effects against all bacteria stains. The combinations of cinnamon EO and antibiotics can be used as an alternative therapeutic application, which can decrease the minimum effective dose of the drugs, thus reducing their possible adverse effects and the costs of treatment.
  6,626 1,237 30
Biomaterial selection for bone augmentation in implant dentistry: A systematic review
Erfan Shamsoddin, Behzad Houshmand, Mehdi Golabgiran
April-June 2019, 10(2):46-50
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_327_18  PMID:31041181
In the present study, a systematic review was conducted to evaluate the biomaterials and their effectiveness for bone augmentation in implant dentistry. The databases of Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information), and Scopus were searched for published studies between 2006 and March 30, 2018. We only included clinical studies in this research. Due to a lack of quantitative evidence and the vast heterogeneity of the biomaterials, implant surgery sites, implant types, follow-up periods, and various implant placement techniques (1-stage or 2-stage), we could not manage to do a meta-analysis on the 13 included studies. Several techniques can result in vertical bone augmentation. Complications can be seen in vertical bone augmentation and especially in the autogenous bone grafting; however, some biomaterials showed promising results to be practical substitutes for autogenous bone. Bio-Oss and beta-tricalcium phosphate are our second-level candidates for vertical bone augmentation due to their promising clinical results with the least infection and immunologic response risk. The gold standard, however, remains the autogenous bone graft. Further clinical studies in the future with exact report of bone measures are needed to develop new comparisons and quantitative analyses.
  5,682 1,122 15
Formulation, characterization, and in vitro testing of azelaic acid ethosome-based cream against Propionibacterium acnes for the treatment of acne
Elsa Fitria Apriani, Yeva Rosana, Iskandarsyah Iskandarsyah
April-June 2019, 10(2):75-80
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_289_18  PMID:31041186
Azelaic acid is an antiacne drug by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase enzyme of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) that affects the inhibition of bacterial DNA synthesis which occurs in the cytoplasm. Azelaic acid must penetrate through the stratum corneum to the sebaceous tissue and into cytoplasm by passing through thick peptidoglycan of P. acnes. Thus, it is necessary to increase the penetration of azelaic acid that formulated based ethosome. This study using thin-layer hydration method forms an ethosomal suspension with variations of concentration ethanol (30%, 35%, and 40%). Antibacterial activity was conducted using broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibacterial activity of azelaic acid ethosome cream based was compared with the marketed cream (Zelface®cream). Azelaic acid ethosome with 35% ethanol has given best result with entrapment efficiency of 94.48% ± 0.14%. Antibacterial activity to P. acnes showed that azelaic acid ethosome-based cream was given better activity than marketed cream (Zelface®cream). The value of MIC and MBC of azelaic acid ethosome-based cream was 250 μg/ml while the marketed cream (Zelface®cream) was shown MIC of 250 μg/ml and MBC of 500 μg/ml. This study proved that the azelaic acid ethosome-based cream has better antibacterial activity.
  4,320 741 13
Evaluation of cytotoxic activity from Temurui (Murraya koenigii [Linn.] Spreng) leaf extracts against HeLa cell line using MTT assay
Ulil Amna, Halimatussakdiah , Puji Wahyuningsih, Nurdin Saidi, Rosnani Nasution
April-June 2019, 10(2):51-55
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_373_18  PMID:31041182
Temurui (Murraya koenigii [Linn.] Spreng) is a local plant of Aceh. The leaves of M. koenigii are used in most of the local foods as spices. Nowadays, cancer is claimed as the second deadly disease in the world where the number of sufferers increases every year. Cervical cancer (HeLa) is one of the most dominant cancers that happen in developing country, including Indonesia. Some chemotherapeutic agents using synthetic drugs have been used to treat cancer, but they are relatively expensive and cause poisoning that limits their use. Based on literatures, M.koenigii serves the potential secondary metabolites that could be developed as anticancer agent. This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic activity from three extracts of M. koenigii leaves against HeLa cell line, including hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Methodology used included extraction process, phytochemical screening, and cytotoxicity evaluation. The result showed that all the three extracts demonstrated a potent cytotoxic activity for HeLa cancer cells. Hexane and ethyl acetate showed a very strong cytotoxic effect with CD50 values <1 μg/mL, whereas methanol extract showed cytotoxic effect with CD50 value of 2.25 μg/mL. These results prove the potential of M. koenigii as an anticancer agent.
  3,337 587 6
The comparative evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of different health-care professionals about the pharmacovigilance system of India
Asmatanzeem Bepari, Shaik Kalimulla Niazi, Ishrat Rahman, Asmabi Makandar Dervesh
April-June 2019, 10(2):68-74
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_4_19  PMID:31041185
In India, the under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by health professionals is recognized as one of the leading reasons of poor ADR signal detection. The knowledge of ADRs and positive attitude of health-care professionals toward ADRs reporting is vital for decreasing the irrational use of an inappropriate pharmacy. The present study was directed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of pharmacovigilance (PV) among the physicians, nurses, and pharmacists of a teaching tertiary care hospital of India. A structured questionnaire was designed using previous studies and standardized. Questions were categorized into three groups: Group 1 tested the knowledge (K1–K8), Group 2 tested attitude (A1–A6), and Group 3 tested the level of practice of PV (P1–P5) of the participant. Such 250 questionnaires were distributed to different health-care professionals of VIMS, Ballari. The participants were graded in three categories as poor, unsatisfactory, and satisfactory depending on the mean score. The data were interpreted by calculating the frequencies, one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's test. Furthermore, factors that discourage them from taking part in the PV program were recorded. A total of 182 questionnaires were statistically analyzed. It was found that KAP of PV among doctors, nurses, and pharmacists was unsatisfactory. Our study showed that knowledge, attitude, and level of practice of PV among doctors, nurses, and pharmacists stand inadequate. Educational interventions periodically can improve these parameters of PV.
  2,556 385 3
Study and modeling of the distribution process of some phenolic compounds between the solid and liquid phases
Nikolay Boyko, Dmitriy Pisarev, Elena Zhilyakova, Alina Pravlotskaya, Oleg Novikov, Nikolay Makarevich, Viktoria Kuznietsova, Natalia Sushchuk
April-June 2019, 10(2):56-62
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_392_18  PMID:31041183
The article presents the results related to the study of distribution of biologically active substances from the plant raw material between solid and liquid phases. The aim of this study is to develop theoretical bases of the extraction process in the equilibrium state by the example of study and modeling of the distribution process of biologically active substances from Eucalyptus viminalis leaves. In these studies, we used ground plant raw material of E. viminalis leaves with particle fraction of 0.1–0.5 mm; and ethanol with concentration 80% ±1% v/v was used as an extractant. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with rutin, chlorogenic acid, and euglobal standards equivalent to spissum extract of chlorophyllipt of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. A hypothesis has been suggested that Henry's adsorption law and the law of conservation of matter play a fundamental role in this process. The experimental data are described well by the suggested equation with high value of determination coefficient R2 =0.99. At the same time, F-test and the significance of coefficients in equations satisfy the statistic condition, which means that the current hypothesis about the adsorption mechanism of distribution of biologically active substances in the extraction system is not refuted. The results of these studies demonstrate good agreement of experimental data and theoretical model based on Henry's adsorption law and mass balance. The numerical values of constants in the model suggested have been calculated.
  2,159 309 1
Comparison of the disinfectant effects of Nanosil D2 and Korsolex extra solutions on thermoset acrylic resin contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus subtilis
Tahereh Ghaffari, Fahimeh Hamedi Rad, Tahereh Pirzadeh, Gahanbaksh Asgari
April-June 2019, 10(2):90-94
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_363_18  PMID:31041189
This study was conducted to compare the disinfectant effects of Nanosil D2 and Korsolex extra on thermoset acrylic resin contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus subtilis. In this experimental study, 90 acrylic samples were made and sterilized. Two samples were cultured as a sterilization control in brain–heart infusion (BHI) and the rest of samples were divided into two groups. Samples of one group were placed in a bacterial suspension of S. mutans and the samples of another group were placed in a suspension containing B. subtilis. Each group was divided into two subgroups for immersion in Nanosil or Korsolex extra solutions. Seven samples were selected from each group at each of 30 min, 1 h, and 2 h and transferred to the BHI test tube, and their turbidity was evaluated after 24 h. SPSS 17 software was used to analyze the data, and the significance level of test was considered P < 0.05. At 1 h, Bacillus level of Nanosil D2 was significantly lower than that of Korsolex extra, and at all ½, 1, and 2 h, the level of Streptococcus in Nanosil D2 solution was significantly lower than that of Korsolex extra (P < 0.05). Bacillus and Streptococcus levels showed significant reduction in both solutions over time. The disinfecting power of Nanosil D2 is more than that of Korsolex extra.
  2,083 251 -
Patency and outcomes of tunneled hemodialysis catheter via femoral versus jugular vein access
Hosein Najd Sepas, Alireza Negahi, Seyed Hamzeh Mousavie, Fereshteh Vosough, Behnood Farazmand
April-June 2019, 10(2):81-84
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_383_18  PMID:31041187
The design of a suitable catheter to achieve a permanent, economical, and efficient vascular pathway for hemodialysis has been always accompanied by difficult and potential complications. Various strategies have been adopted to minimize the use of tunneled catheters that are used for dialysis. Regarding this, the present study aimed to assess the success, patency, as well as early and late complications of cuffed femoral and jugular hemodialysis catheters. This case–control study was performed on 145 hemodialysis patients who were candidates for the insertion of tunneled hemodialysis catheters at Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2015–2016. The data were collected retrospectively by reviewing the patients' medical records. The participants were divided into two groups of femoral and jugular accesses, based on the type of catheter they had. To determine the procedure-related outcomes, they were assessed 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after catheterization. According to the results, the mean times of catheter efficacy (patency) were 4.43 ± 3.11 and 5.65 ± 4.57 months in the femoral and jugular access groups, respectively, showing no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.095). Furthermore, the femoral and jugular access groups had the infection prevalence of 23.2% and 16.2%, thrombosis prevalence of 28.6% and 20.9%, and mortality rates of 3.5% and 1.4%, respectively. According to the multivariable linear regression model, the history of catheterization could predict reduced catheter patency. In addition, catheter-related infection could be predicted among females based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis. As the findings indicated, femoral and jugular hemodialysis catheter insertions showed no significant difference in terms of the mean patency, complications (e.g., infection and thrombosis), and mortality rate.
  1,936 308 3
Effect of Thai traditional antinausea remedy on hypnotic and sedative activity in animal experimental models: Interaction with drugs acting at GABAA receptor
Watchara Damjuti, Juthaporn Kwansang, Jurairat Boonruab
April-June 2019, 10(2):85-89
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_361_18  PMID:31041188
Thai traditional antinausea remedy is drug registered in the National List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of blood circulation disorders, dizziness, fatigue, and insomnia. Antinausea remedies have long been used, but their effects and action mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, hypnotic, sedative, and anxiolytic activities of antinausea remedies were evaluated. This preclinical trial assessed the hypnotic, sedative, and anxiolytic activities of antinausea remedies. Thai traditional antinausea remedy was extracted by decoction in deionized water until exhaustion and concentrated to dryness. Anxiolytic activities were evaluated using elevated plus-maze and open-field tests for vehicle control group compared to treatment groups (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). Hypnotic and mechanistic studies were performed using thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time with benzodiazepine receptor antagonist test. In the thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time test, vehicle control groups were compared to treatment groups (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg). In addition, GABAergic agonistic effect vehicle control groups were pretreated with 3.5-mg/kg flumazenil before sterile water and compared to the treatment group which also received flumazenil before 100 mg/kg extract. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison testing. The aqueous extract was found to be a hypnotic and sedative agent with a dose response either as latent period or prolonged sleeping time (P < 0.05) and a successive GABAergic agonistic effect. Locomotor determination revealed the tendency to relieve anxiety. Thai traditional antinausea remedy can induce sleep and be safely used to reduce anxiety.
  1,892 289 -
Neuroblastoma cancer in children
Upendra Nagaich
April-June 2019, 10(2):45-45
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_37_19  PMID:31041180
  1,709 356 3