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   2019| January-March  | Volume 10 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 12, 2019

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Proniosomal gel-mediated topical delivery of fluconazole: Development, in vitro characterization, and microbiological evaluation
Amal Saber Mohammed Abu El-Enin, Maha Khalifa Ahmed Khalifa, Aya Mohammed Dawaba, Hamdy Mohammed Dawaba
January-March 2019, 10(1):20-26
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_332_18  PMID:30815384
The aim of this study was to explore the potential of proniosomal gel for topical delivery of fluconazole, an antifungal drug used in fungal infections caused by pathogenic fungi. Fluconazole-loaded proniosomal gels were prepared by the coacervation phase separation method using different nonionic surfactants (spans and tweens). The prepared fluconazole proniosomal gels were evaluated for various parameters such as particle size (PS), drug entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), and in vitro drug release. The experimental results showed that the EE% for the prepared formulae are acceptable (85.14%–97.66%) and they are nanosized (19.8–50.1 nm) and the diffusion from the gels gave the desired sustaining effect. F4, which was prepared from span 60, tween 80 (1:1), and cholesterol showed highest EE% and gave slow release (40.50% ± 1.50% after 6 h), was subjected to zeta potential (ZP) test, transmission electron microscopy as well as microbiological study. The results showed a well-defined spherical vesicle with sharp boundaries with good physical stability of fluconazole within the prepared gel. Moreover, F4 showed an excellent microbiological activity represented by a greater zone of inhibition (5.3 cm) compared to control gel (fluconazole in 2% hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) gel formula) (4.2 cm) and plain gel with no drug (0 cm) against Candida albicans. This study showed the suitability of the proniosomal gel in attaining the desired sustainment effect for topical delivery of fluconazole for the management of fungal infection. The physical stability study showed that there was no significant change in EE%, PS, and ZP of fluconazole proniosomal gel after storage for 6 months.
  2,898 418 5
Quercetin prevent proteoglycan destruction by inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9, matrix metalloproteinase-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 expressions on osteoarthritis model rats
Dian Agustina Permatasari, Deantari Karliana, Iskandarsyah Iskandarsyah, Ade Arsianti, Anton Bahtiar
January-March 2019, 10(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_331_18  PMID:30815381
Prior study has shown that Ageratum conyzoides L. extract that containing quercetin has been proved to prevent inflammation and proteoglycan degradation by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) expression. Target of osteoarthritis (OA) treatment was in the synovial joint that requiring a drug delivery system. The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of quercetin-loaded lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles on the OA model rats by observed its effect on interleukin (IL-1) β, MMP-9, MMP-13, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-5) expressions. In this study, 70 white male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 14 groups, 7 groups each for destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM) and monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA. After 28 days from induction, SHAM and negative group received gel base topically; positive group received sodium diclofenac gel; three-dose group received each 0.84, 1.68, 3.36 mg/g quercetin-loaded nanoparticles gel; and A. conyzoides L. group received A. conyzoides L. extract gel. Each group gets treatment until day 70, and then, blood sample was collected for serum analysis; knee joint was isolated and subjected to histology samples treatment. Quercetin-loaded nanoparticle gel dose 1 (0.84 mg/g gel), dose 2 (1.68 mg/g gel), dose 3 (3.36 mg/g), and A. conyzoides L. extract gel could decreased the level of IL-1 β, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and increasing color intensity significantly on histopathological observations on DMM and MIA-induced OA.
  2,668 520 6
High mannoronic acid containing alginate affects the differentiation of Wharton's jelly-derived stem cells to hepatocyte-like cell
Saeed Azandeh, Darioush Bijan Nejad, Vahid Bayati, Foroug Shakoor, Negar Varaa, Bahman Cheraghian
January-March 2019, 10(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_312_18  PMID:30815382
For transplantation of cell into injured tissues, cells should be transferred to the damaged site through an adequate carrier. Nevertheless, the nutrient-limited and hypoxic condition in the carrier can bring about broad cell death. This study set to assess the impact of alginate concentrations on the differentiation and the proliferation of cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogels. Human Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (HWJ-MSCs) were encapsulated in two concentrations of alginate hydrogel. Then, the proliferation and the hepatic differentiation were evaluated with an MTT assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay software and urea production. The results demonstrated that the proliferation of cell and urea production in 1.5% alginate concentration was higher than in 2.5% alginate concentration in the hydrogels of alginate. We deduce that the optimized alginate hydrogel concentration is necessary for achieving comparable cell activities in three-dimensional culture.
  2,327 272 1
The effect of venous caffeine on the prevention of apnea of prematurity in the very preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of Shahid Motahhari Hospital, Urmia, during a year
Zahra Fakoor, Ali Aghayar Makooie, Zahra Joudi, Rasool Gharaaghaji Asl
January-March 2019, 10(1):16-19
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_334_18  PMID:30815383
Due to the importance of prevention of apnea of prematurity in the very preterm infants and the side effects of using methylxanthines in preterm infants, the present study was conducted and aimed at investigating the effects of prophylactic caffeine on the incident of apnea (short-term consequence). This is a clinical–experimental trial, in which the infants were included after receiving written consent from their parents. The infants were randomly divided into two groups, namely, Group A (receive caffeine) and Group B (did not receive caffeine). After sampling of the collected data, the two groups were analyzed using statistical tests using SPSS software 23. Among the 50 infants in the caffeine group and 50 infants in the control group, 1 (2%) and 2 (4%) infants required long-term oxygen, respectively. Three (6%) infants from the caffeine group and 2 (4%) infants from the control group had an intraventricular hemorrhage. Two (4%) infants from the caffeine group and 1 (2%) infant from the control group had a positive patent ductus arteriosus and needed treatment. Among the 50 infants in the caffeine group and 50 infants in the control group, 7 (14%) and 9 (18%) infants had apnea, respectively. According to the Fisher's exact test, there was no significant difference between the incident of apnea in the two groups (P = 0.58). Ten (20%) infants from the caffeine group and 7 (14%) infants from the control group died. The prescription of prophylactic caffeine had no effect on the incident of apnea in the infants. Hence, the use of that should be limited to the preterm infants lower than 1250 g in the prophylactic form.
  2,161 389 1
Effects of rosuvastatin on metabolic profile: Versatility of dose-dependent effect
Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb
January-March 2019, 10(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_330_18  PMID:30815386
Obesity refers to an excess of body fat content causing metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate dose-dependent effect of rosuvastatin on the metabolic profile of diet-induced obesity in mice model study. A total number of 40 male Albino Swiss mice were used which divided into Group I: Control group, fed normal diet for 8 weeks (n = 10); Group II: High-fat diet (HFD) group, fed on HFD for 8 weeks (n = 10); Group III: HFD + 20 mg/kg rosuvastatin for 8 weeks (n = 10); and Group IV: HFD +40 mg/kg rosuvastatin for 8 weeks (n = 10). Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were estimated, including fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and glucose tolerance test (GTT). Mice on HFD fed showed a significant increase in the insulin resistance, body weight, deterioration of lipid profile and significant reduction in the β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity compared to the control P < 0.05. GTT and blood glucose level were significantly high in HFD fed group compared to the control group P < 0.05. Rosuvastatin in a dose of 40 mg/kg illustrated better effect than 20 mg/kg on the glucometabolic profile P < 0.05. Rosuvastatin may has a potential effect on reduction of glucometabolic changes induced by HFD with significant amelioration of pancreatic β-cell function in dose-dependent manner.
  2,073 286 7
The potency of chitosan-Pinus merkusii extract nanoparticle as the antioxidant and anti-caspase 3 on lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity in rat
Sri Agus Sudjarwo, Koerniasari Eraiko, Giftania Wardani Sudjarwo, Koerniasari
January-March 2019, 10(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_306_18  PMID:30815385
The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-caspase 3 activity of chitosan-Pinus merkusii nanoparticle in against lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. chitosan-P. merkusii nanoparticle was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The male rats were divided into control group (rats were given with distilled water), lead acetate group (rats were injected with lead acetate 15 mg/kg BW i. p), and the treatment group (rats were given the chitosan-P. merkusii nanoparticle 150 mg, 300 mg, 600 mg/kg BW orally and were injected with lead acetate 15 mg/kg BW). The rats blood samples were measured levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The kidney tissues were collected to evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Histological to evaluate renal damage, and immunohistochemical to analyze the expression of caspase 3. The results showed that DLS showed the size of chitosan-P. merkusii nanoparticle was 165.9 ± 24.18 nm. SEM images of the chitosan-P. merkusii nanoparticles showed an irregular shape and its the rough surface. Administration of lead acetate resulted in a significant increase in levels of the BUN, creatinine, MDA level, caspase 3 expression, and a decrease in SOD and GPx were compared with the control group. Treatment with the chitosan-P. merkusii nanoparticle 600 mg/kg BW significantly decreased the elevated BUN, creatinine, MDA levels, caspase 3 expression and also increase in SOD and GPx as compared to lead acetate group. The lead acetate induced loss of the normal structure of renal cells and necrosis, whereas treated with chitosan-P. merkusii nanoparticle improved renal cell necrosis. This study indicates that chitosan-P. merkusii nanoparticles appeared to be a promising agent for protection against lead-induced nephrotoxicity through increasing antioxidant and inhibiting caspase 3 expression.
  1,996 289 7
Assessment of the fitness of Cox and parametric regression models of survival distribution for Iranian breast cancer patients' data
Maryam Mohseny, Reza Shekarriz-Foumani, Parastoo Amiri, Marjan Vejdani, Pezhman Farshidmehr, Hossein Zabihi Mahmoudabadi, Farzaneh Amanpour, Pegah Mohaghegh, Farzad Tajdini, Azadeh Sayarifard, Esmat Davoudi-Monfared
January-March 2019, 10(1):39-44
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_360_18  PMID:30815387
Factors affecting the time of survival after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis remain unknown. However, some of the prognostic factors have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biologic and socioeconomic factors on long-term survival of BC patients. This was a descriptive chart review and survey of all women with a confirmed diagnosis of BC registered in Shohada-e-Tajrish Cancer Research Center database from March 2004 to March 2015. The checklist of study consisted of biologic, demographic, reproductive, genetic, medical, and therapeutic information of patients. The minimum time of follow-up was 3 years and the maximum was 10 years. We then evaluated possible associations of these variables with BC survival using Cox and parametric regression models of survival analysis. The study population was 1276 BC patients. Their mean survival was 23 (range 1–120) months. Between the parametric models, Weibull regression model demonstrated the lowest Akaike information criterion and thus the best fit, and tumor size, number of lymph nodes, BC stage, educational level, and high-fat diet were significant in this model. Based on our findings, educational level, consumption of fat, and characteristics of tumor at the time of diagnosis (disease stage, tumor size, number of involved lymph nodes) are the most important prognostic factors affecting long-term survival of BC patients. We suggest that future studies assess the efficacy of possible interventions for these factors.
  1,826 236 -
Nanomedicine in prosthetic dentistry
Upendra Nagaich
January-March 2019, 10(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_1_19  PMID:30815380
  1,607 293 -