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   2018| January-March  | Volume 9 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 17, 2018

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Polymeric micelles as cutaneous drug delivery system in normal skin and dermatological disorders
Behzad Sharif Makhmalzade, Fateme Chavoshy
January-March 2018, 9(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_314_17  PMID:29441317
The easy accessibility of skin made dermal application, one of the approaches for local drug therapy. Effectiveness of topical drug application is depended on different parameters such as skin barrier properties, physicochemical properties of drug and vehicle, and interaction between drug and its vehicle with the skin layers. In this review, an overview of skin structure and feature of polymeric micelles as topical nanocarriers is provided. We also summarized the research studies dealing with the application of polymeric micelles for cutaneous delivery. In the past decades, numerous types of nanocarriers have been widely investigated as a novel delivery approach to improve skin penetration and localization of drugs in normal skin and dermatological diseases. Polymeric micelles are one of them, with their specific ability to encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. These carriers can enhance the therapeutic efficacy and minimize the systemic side effects of the drugs. Polymeric micelles could enhance the deposition of drugs in targeted sites of the skin in the normal and dermatological diseases such as psoriasis and acne. Nevertheless, still there is a need to investigate the mechanism of action of these carriers and the fate of polymeric micelles in skin.
  7,663 1,129 39
The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial
Zahra Pazhohideh, Solmaz Mohammadi, Nosrat Bahrami, Faraz Mojab, Parvin Abedi, Elham Maraghi
January-March 2018, 9(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_305_17  PMID:29441319
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40) or metronidazole (n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs.
  6,611 871 4
Quality evaluation of Kaempferia parviflora rhizome with reference to 5,7-dimethoxyflavone
Yamon Pitakpawasutthi, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
January-March 2018, 9(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_147_17  PMID:29441321
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker is a medicinal plant found in the upper Northeastern regions of Thailand, which belongs to Zingiberaceae family. The present study aims to investigate the standardization parameters, to analyze chemical constituents of volatile oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine the content of 5,7-dimethoxyflavone in K. parviflora rhizomes by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry compared to TLC image analysis. K. parviflora rhizomes from 15 different sources throughout Thailand were investigated for morphological and pharmacognostic parameters. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone contents were determined by TLC-densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of toluene: chloroform: Acetone: formic acid (5: 4: 1: 0.2). For the Results, the pharmacognostic parameters of K. parviflora rhizome were demonstrated. The loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water content, volatile oil content, ethanol, and water-soluble extractive values were found to be 8.979 ± 0.041, 5.127 ± 0.060, 2.174 ± 0.092, 9.291 ± 0.458, 0.028 ± 0.003, 5.138 ± 0.092, and 8.254 ± 0.191 g/100 g of dry weight, respectively. K. parviflora volatile oil showed the major components of α-copaene, dauca-5, 8-diene, camphene, β-pinene, borneol, and linalool. The 5,7-dimethoxyflavone content of K. parviflora rhizomes determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis were found to be 2.15 ± 0.64 and 1.96 ± 0.51 g/100 g of dry rhizomes, respectively. The 5,7-dimethoxyflavone contents of both methods were not significantly different (P > 0.05) using paired t-test.
  5,502 724 8
Effect of Vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
Ashwitha Shruti Dass, Sarala Narayana, PN Venkatarathnamma
January-March 2018, 9(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_309_17  PMID:29441322
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants can improve glycemic control, lipid profile, and cognitive functions. We assessed the effect of Vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids (OFA) on the above parameters. One hundred patients with type 2 DM receiving metformin 500 mg and glimepiride 1 mg were randomized to receive add-on therapy of Vitamin E 400 mg or OFA once daily for 12 weeks and the third group served as control. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), lipid profile, and mini-mental state examination were done at baseline and 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the study. A significant reduction in FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c was observed in all the three groups at 12 weeks. There was significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in patients receiving either of the antioxidants and also significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein in patients receiving OFA at 12 weeks compared to baseline. BMI and WHR were significantly increased in control group. Intergroup analysis showed that in patients receiving Vitamin E and OFA, the reduction of FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c were similar. The patients receiving OFA had significant reduction in TG compared to control. There was no significant effect on cognitive function. Vitamin E and OFA had beneficial effects on lipid profile and anthropometric measurements; however, the glycemic control was similar to the patients in control group.
  5,346 644 6
The ethanolic extract of ashitaba stem (Angelica keskei [Miq.] Koidz) as future antituberculosis
Sri Agung Fitri Kusuma, Yoppi Iskandar, Mutiara Ayu Dewanti
January-March 2018, 9(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_283_17  PMID:29441323
Considering the easy contagion of tuberculosis (TB) disease spread and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB, which directly impacts the failure of therapeutic goals and mortality rates increasing, TB disease control remains to be the main concern of continuous health development effort. Therefore, the discovery of new TB drug is needed. This research assessed the new natural anti-TB drug from the ethanolic extract of Angelica keiskei stem obtained from Lombok, Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv strain to A. keiskei stem extract and to determine its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The extraction methods of A. keiskei stem were done using a maceration method. In addition to phytochemical screening and water content analysis using standard method, the phytochemical parameters were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. Ethanolic extract of A. keiskei stem was assayed for their Mtb inhibitory activity using the proportion method. The phytochemical analysis result showed that the secondary metabolites contain in the extract were flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, monoterpenoid and sesquiterpen, quinon, and saponin. The anti-TB test result showed the active activity of ethanolic extract of A. keiskei against Mtb H37Rv strain with MIC ranging from 6% to 8% w/v. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of A. keiskei is a prospective natural anti-TB for the future.
  4,754 482 1
Pharmaceutical “quality by design” approach
Upendra Nagaich
January-March 2018, 9(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_343_17  PMID:29441316
  4,523 628 1
The off-label use of drugs for parenteral nutrition as a solvent of substances slightly soluble in water in pharmacological research
Aleksandr L Urakov, Ilshat G Mustafin, Aleksandr V Samorodov, Felix Kh Kamilov, Ferkat A Khaliullin
January-March 2018, 9(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_280_17  PMID:29441318
Because of the problem to evaluate biological activity in water-soluble substances in all phases of preclinical and clinical studies, the research work enabled to develop the original solvent for poorly soluble compounds based on substances for parenteral nutrition. The main aim is to examine the impact of the original solvent based on substances for parenteral nutrition on biological systems exemplified by the hemostatic system, characterized by sensitivity and variability of the effects in response to any impact, and its comparison with the solvents that are conventional in pharmacological research. Experimental work is performed according to the “guidance on preclinical research of new pharmacological substances” in vitro. The findings show that traditional solvents at low dosages affect all the researched indicators of the hemostasis system. The smallest effect in respect of the hemostatic system was characterized by ethanol, and the most apparent antiaggregational effect was registered with dioxane. 10% concentration of original blend of lipids made no effect on hemostasis system. Thus, according to their own findings and experience in application of lipid emulsions as substances of parenteral nutrition, they can be considered to be an adequate solvent in all phases of preclinical and clinical studies of new drugs.
  4,349 439 2
Zika virus disease knowledge among the future health-care providers of the United Arab Emirates
Syed Arman Rabbani, Farhan Mustafa, Tasneem Shouqair, Itaf Mohamad, Nada Tahsin
January-March 2018, 9(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_239_17  PMID:29441320
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a major public health concern. Although there are no reported cases of ZIKV disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is a potential risk of transmission due to large expatriate population and high influx of international travelers. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of ZIKV disease among the students of a medical and health sciences university in the UAE. Their knowledge of ZIKV disease was assessed using a specially designed, pretested, and validated questionnaire. Of the 500 respondents included in the final analysis, 314 (62.8%) respondents presented with poor knowledge of ZIKV disease. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 10.48 ± 2.48 out of a maximum of 17. Gender, college and year of study, nationality and attendance in lecture/conference/workshop on Zika were significantly associated with the level of knowledge. The males possessed significantly (P = 0.046) better knowledge as compared to the females. Students of medical college had significantly (P = 0.005) better knowledge as compared to students of other colleges. The level of knowledge improved significantly (P = 0.026) as the year of study progressed. There is a need for medical and paramedical students to update their knowledge of ZIKV disease as they are the future health-care providers who will be responsible for creating awareness about such outbreaks and their preventive measures.
  4,069 316 4