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   2014| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 23, 2014

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Multi criteria decision making to select the best method for the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles of rasagiline mesylate using analytic hierarchy process
Viveksarathi Kunasekaran, Kannan Krishnamoorthy
July-September 2014, 5(3):115-121
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137410  PMID:25126532
The objective of this study was to select best method for the development of rasagiline mesylate (RM) loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Improper method selection may lead to waste of time, loss of material and financial resources. One of the possibilities to overcome these difficulties, AHP was employed to find the suitable method. In the AHP, a decision of hierarchy was constructed with a goal, criteria, sub-criteria, and alternatives. After constructing the AHP, the expert choice software was used to compute the overall priority of criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The best alternative selected was based on the highest priority. Nanoscale solid lipid particles of RM was formulated by the selected microemulsion method (M4) and it shows the particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were within acceptable limits. Drug content and entrapment efficiency of the RM-solid lipid nanoparticles were 97.26% and 86.57%, respectively. This study concludes that the AHP was viable and effective tool for selecting a most suitable method for the fabrication of RM loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles.
  5,669 698 9
Comparative antidiarrheal and antiulcer effect of the aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Tinospora cordifolia in rats
Mohanjit Kaur, Amarjeet Singh, Bimlesh Kumar
July-September 2014, 5(3):122-128
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137417  PMID:25126533
Tinospora cordifolia is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The use of plant as remedy for diarrhea and ulcer is well-documented in Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, pharmacological evidence does not exist to substantiate its therapeutic efficacy for the same. The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and antiulcer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia in rats. The antidiarrheal activity of T. cordifolia extracts was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea using parameters such as onset of diarrhea, number of wet stools, total number of stool and weight of total number of stools. The antiulcer activity of extracts was investigated using ethanol and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer. Furthermore, tissue antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level were also investigated. Tinospora cordifolia extracts were more efficacious in reducing number of total stools in both the models of diarrhea and showed a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect. The antiulcer activity of the extracts was confirmed by a reduction in ulcer index along with the decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, and an increase in pH of gastric content in both the models. The obtained results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folkloric use of the T. cordifolia as antidiarrhoeal and antiulcer agent.
  4,980 490 11
Role of pharmacists in retailing of drugs
Hemant Kumar Sinha
July-September 2014, 5(3):107-107
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137383  PMID:25126530
  4,610 742 6
A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for determination of curcumin in aqueous humor of rabbit
Akhilesh Mishra, Gayatri Dewangan, W Ramdas Singh, Sarbani Hazra, Tapan Kumar Mandal
July-September 2014, 5(3):147-149
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137448  PMID:25126537
This article describes a simple and rapid method for determination of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) in aqueous humor of rabbit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis was performed using a C-18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ luna) by isocratic elution with a mobile phase containing 25 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (pH 3.5): Acetonitrile (40:60) and detection at 424 nm using a photodiode array (PDA) detector for curcumin. The regression data for curcumin showed a good linear relationship with r 2 > 0.998 over the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg ml−1 . Relative standard deviations (RSD) for the intraday and interday coefficient of variations for the assay were less than 5.0 and 8.5, respectively. The recovery of the method was between 79.8-83.6%. The quantification limit of the method for curcumin was 0.01 μg ml−1 . This method has good accuracy, precision, and quantitation limit. It is also concluded that the method is useful for measuring very low curcumin concentrations in aqueous humor.
  4,698 394 3
Method development and validation of liquid chromatography-tandem/mass spectrometry for aldosterone in human plasma: Application to drug interaction study of atorvastatin and olmesartan combination
Rakesh Das, Subhasis Dan, Tapan Kumar Pal
July-September 2014, 5(3):108-114
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137402  PMID:25126531
In the present investigation, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of aldosterone (ALD) a hormone responsible for blood pressure in human plasma. The developed method was validated and extended for application on human subjects to study drug interaction of atorvastatin (ATSV) and olmesartan (OLM) on levels of ALD. The ALD in plasma was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with 5 mL dichloromethane/ethyl ether (60/40% v/v). The chromatographic separation of ALD was carried on Xterra, RP-Column C18 (150 mm× 4.6 mm × 3.5 μm) at 30°C followed by four-step gradient program composed of methanol and water. Step 1 started with 35% methanol for first 1 min and changed linearly to 90% in next 1.5 min in Step 2. Step 3 lasted for next 2 min with 90% methanol. The method finally concluded with Step 4 to achieve initial concentration of methanol that is, 35% thus contributing the total method run time of 17.5 min. The flow rate was 0.25 mL/min throughout the process. The developed method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, stability, linearity, sensitivity, and recovery. The method was linear and found to be acceptable over the range of 50-800 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied for the drug interaction study of ATSV + OLM in combination against OLM treatment on blood pressure by quantifying changes in levels of ALD in hypertensive patients. The study revealed levels of ALD were significantly higher in ATSV + OLM treatment condition when compared to OLM as single treated condition. This reflects the reason of low effectiveness of ATSV + OLM in combination instead of synergistic activity.
  4,435 551 5
Evaluation of analgesic activity of perindopril in albino mice
RN Suresha, Siddamma Amoghimath, PS Vaibhavi, SL Shruthi, MK Jayanthi, HL Kalabharathi
July-September 2014, 5(3):129-133
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137423  PMID:25126534
The aim was to evaluate the analgesic activity of perindopril in chemical, thermal and mechanical pain on Swiss albino mice. A total of 54 albino mice (Swiss strain) weighing 25-30 g were allocated to each experimental model and in each model there were three groups. The control group received normal saline (25 ml/kg) per orally, standard group received pentazocine (10 mg/kg) intra-peritoneal and test groups received perindopril (1 mg/kg) per orally. Perindopril and normal saline was administered 2 h before, whereas the pentazocine was administered 15 min prior to Eddy's hot plate, writhing and tail clip methods. The decrease in number of writhes, the delay in reaction time in tail clip and Eddy's hot plate method denoted the analgesic activity. Perindopril decreased the number of writhes, delayed the reaction time in tail clip and Eddy's hot plate method considerably when compared with control (normal saline), but less when compared with standard (pentazocine). Perindopril exhibits analgesic activity in thermal, chemical, and mechanical pain models in albino mice.
  3,625 406 2
Role of different biodegradable polymers on the permeability of ciprofloxacin
Chandra Kanti Chakraborti, Subhashree Sahoo, Pradipta Kumar Behera
July-September 2014, 5(3):140-146
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137434  PMID:25126536
Since permeability across biological membranes is a key factor in the absorption and distribution of drugs, drug permeation characteristics of three oral suspensions of ciprofloxacin were designed and compared. The three suspensions of ciprofloxacin were prepared by taking biodegradable polymers such as carbopol 934, carbopol 940, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The permeability study was performed by using a Franz diffusion cell through both synthetic cellulose acetate membrane and excised goat gastrointestinal membranes in acidic as well as alkaline pH. To know the permeability of drug from control/formulations through different membranes in acidic/alkaline pH, cumulative percentage drug permeation, apparent permeability (Papp), flux, and enhancement ratio (ER) were calculated. Considering Papp and flux values of all formulations, it is evident that formulation containing HPMC was the most beneficial for improving permeation and diffusivity of ciprofloxacin even after 16 h. Hence, this preparation may be considered as the most suitable formulation to obtain prolonged release action of the drug. The ER values of all formulations, through excised goat intestinal mucosal membrane in alkaline pH, were higher than those formulations through goat stomach mucosal membrane in acidic pH. Enhancement ratio values of those formulations indicate that the permeability of the drug was more enhanced by the polymers in the intestinal part, leading to more bioavailability and prolonged action in that portion of the gastrointestinal tract. It may also be concluded from our results that HPMC containing formulation was the best suspension, which may show effective controlled release action. Even carbopol containing formulations might also produce controlled release action.
  3,472 393 9
Pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced myocardial infarction
Manodeep Chakraborty, Jagadish Vasudev Kamath
July-September 2014, 5(3):134-139
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137428  PMID:25126535
Globally, the rate of development of myocardial diseases and hypertension is very common, which is responsible for incremental morbidity and mortality statistics. Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) can precipitate myocardial infarction due to hypokalemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract (GTE) with HCTZ against ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial toxicity. Wistar albino rats of either sex were taken and pretreated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and low (100 mg/kg, p.o.) dose of GTE for 30 days. Standard, high and low dose of interactive groups received HCTZ (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for last 7 days. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by modified Lagendorff apparatus, and the effect of different treatments was evaluated by percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension, serum biomarkers, and heart tissue antioxidant levels. Prophylactic treatment groups, such as high and low dose of GTE and their interactive groups with HCTZ, exhibited significant percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension. Apart from that, significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase, decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive species in heart tissue, as well as significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB and N-acetylcysteine levels have also been documented. The present findings clearly suggest that GTE dose-dependently reduces myocardial toxicity due to ischemia, and combination with HCTZ can reduce the associated side-effects and exhibits myocardial protection.
  3,455 349 9
Nanotechnology: The vision of 2025
Upendra Nagaich
July-September 2014, 5(3):105-106
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.137382  PMID:25126529
  2,887 424 -