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   2013| April-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 8, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation
Vidya Krishnan, T Lakshmi
April-June 2013, 4(2):78-83
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111523  PMID:23833747
Advancement of materials technology has been immense, especially in the past 30 years. Ceramics has not been new to dentistry. Porcelain crowns, silica fillers in composite resins, and glass ionomer cements have already been proved to be successful. Materials used in the replacement of tissues have come a long way from being inert, to compatible, and now regenerative. When hydroxyapatite was believed to be the best biocompatible replacement material, Larry Hench developed a material using silica (glass) as the host material, incorporated with calcium and phosphorous to fuse broken bones. This material mimics bone material and stimulates the regrowth of new bone material. Thus, due to its biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity it came to be known as "bioactive glass-bioglass." It is now encompassed, along with synthetic hydroxyapatite, in the field of biomaterials science known as "bioactive ceramics." The aim of this article is to give a bird's-eye view, of the various uses in dentistry, of this novel, miracle material which can bond, induce osteogenesis, and also regenerate bone.
  10,333 1,700 65
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India)
Hotam S Chaudhary, Jayprakash Yadav, Anju R Shrivastava, Smriti Singh, Anil K Singh, Natrajan Gopalan
April-June 2013, 4(2):118-123
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111528  PMID:23833752
The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm) and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm). MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.
  7,797 1,574 24
REVIEW ARTICLES
Indian aspects of drug information resources and impact of drug information centre on community
Nitesh Chauhan, Sabeeya Moin, Anushree Pandey, Ashu Mittal, Umakant Bajaj
April-June 2013, 4(2):84-93
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111524  PMID:23833748
Drug information centre refer to facility specially set aside for, and specializing in the provision of drug information and related issues. The purpose of drug information center is to provide authentic individualized, accurate, relevant and unbiased drug information to the consumers and healthcare professionals regarding medication related inquiries to the nation for health care and drug safety aspects by answering their call regarding the all critical problems on drug information, their uses and their side effects. Apart from that the center also provides in-depth, impartial source of crucial drug information to meet the needs of the practicing physicians, pharmacists and other health care professionals to safeguard the health, financial and legal interests of the patient and to broaden the pharmacist role visible in the society and community. The service should include collecting, reviewing, evaluating, indexing and distributing information on drugs to health workers. Drug and poisons information centers are best established within major teaching hospitals. This allows access to clinical experience, libraries, research facilities and educational activities. Information present in the current paper will not only enlighten the role of drug information center but also focused on the rational use of drug.
  8,322 759 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation encapsulated in the phospholipids vesicle system
Vinod Kumar Gauttam, Ajudhia Nath Kalia
April-June 2013, 4(2):108-117
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111527  PMID:23833751
Multifactorial metabolic diseases, for instance diabetes develop several complications like hyperlipidemia, hepatic toxicity, immunodeficiency etc., Hence, instead of mono-drug therapy the management of the disease requires the combination of herbs. Marketed herbal drugs comprise of irrational combinations, which makes their quality control more difficult. Phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility, resulting in high therapeutic dose regimen; phospholipids encapsulation can overcome this problem. Hence, present study was designed to develop a phospholipids encapsulated polyherbal anti-diabetic formulation. In the present study, polyherbal formulation comprises of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic (50% v/v) extracts of Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Withania somnifera 2:2:1, respectively, named HA, optimized based on oral glucose tolerance test model in normal Wistar rats. The optimized formulation (HA) entrapped in the phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (8:2) vesicle system is named HA lipids (HAL). The vesicles were characterized for shape, morphology, entrapment efficiency, polar-dispersity index and release profile in the gastric pH. The antidiabetic potential of HA, marketed polyherbal formulation (D-fit) and HAL was compared in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of 21 days study. The parameters evaluated were behavioral changes, body weight, serum glucose level, lipid profile and oxidative stress. The antidiabetic potential of HA (1000 mg/kg) was at par with the D-fit (1000 mg/kg). However, the potential was enhanced by phospholipids encapsulation; as HAL (500 mg/kg) has shown more significant (P < 0.05) potential in comparison to HA (1000 mg/kg) and at par with metformin (500 mg/kg).
  6,395 793 13
Aqueous extract of Saussurea lappa root ameliorate oxidative myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats
TS Mohamed Saleem, N Lokanath, A Prasanthi, M Madhavi, G Mallika, MN Vishnu
April-June 2013, 4(2):94-100
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111525  PMID:23833749
Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae), is commonly known as Kushta. In Ayurvedha, it is mentioned that the aqueous extract of the root S. lappa was used for treatment of angina pectoris. The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of root of S. lappa against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Myocardial injury in rat was induced by the administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 85 mg/kg, i.p., The rats were pretreated with the aqueous extract of S. lappa (AESL) in three different doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) through the oral route. Isoproterenol alone-treated rats showed increased serum concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase (CK), and aspartate transaminase (AST), increased myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and decreased myocardial glutathione (GSH) level due to myocardial damage produced by isoproterenol. This is further conformed by histopathological changes. Chronic oral administration of AESL in three different doses significantly restored the level of myocardial LDH, CK, AST, TBARS, and GSH. The extract effect was compared with the reference standard α-tocopherol which also offered similar protection in biochemical and histopathological changes. The overall beneficial effect which was observed with the dose of 200 mg/kg indicated that AESL produced significant dose-dependent activity against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.
  5,007 578 17
Development and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled-release pellets by fluid bed coating process
Mikkilineni Bhanu Prasad, Suryadevara Vidyadhara, Reddyvalam Lankapalli C Sasidhar, Talamanchi Balakrishna, Pavuluri Trilochani
April-June 2013, 4(2):101-107
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111526  PMID:23833750
The aim of the present study was to develop controlled-release pellets of diltiazem HCl with ethyl cellulose and hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose phthalate as the release rate retarding polymers by fluid bed coating technique. The prepared pellets were evaluated for drug content, particle size, subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calori metry (DSC), and evaluated for in vitro release. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulations for a period of 3 months. The drug content was in the range of 97%-101%. The mean particle size of the drug-loaded pellets was in the range 700-785 μm. The drug release rate decreased as the concentration of ethyl cellulose increased in the pellet formulations. Among the prepared formulations, FDL10 and FDL11 showed 80% drug release in 16 h, matching with USP dissolution test 6 for diltiazem HCl extended-release capsules. SEM photographs confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature with a smooth surface. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug-loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC studies. Stability studies indicated that the pellets were stable.
  3,809 546 6
EDITORIAL
SPER 2 nd Annual Conference at Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India on 09 th March 2013
Upendra Nagaich
April-June 2013, 4(2):71-75
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111521  PMID:23833745
  3,583 340 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Disaster Management Education at UG level in the Indian University System
Rakesh Kumar Sharma
April-June 2013, 4(2):76-77
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.111522  PMID:23833746
  2,809 394 4
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