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   2013| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 20, 2013

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Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review
Baby Chauhan, Gopal Kumar, Nazia Kalam, Shahid H Ansari
January-March 2013, 4(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107494  PMID:23662276
Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.
  17,098 2,490 71
Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana): A preliminary assessment
Neeraj K Sethiya, MK Mohan Maruga Raja, Shri Hari Mishra
January-March 2013, 4(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107497  PMID:23662279
Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae), and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A rapid TLC-DPPH method was developed to identify and differentiate four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi in terms of presence of β-carotene, rutin, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, and mangiferin. C. pluricaulis shows presence of scopoletin; E. alsinoides shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid; C. ternatea shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and rutin; and C. decussata shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and mangiferin. The order, they followed, based on their antioxidant potential is β-carotene < mangiferin < rutin < scopoletin < chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are attributed for their beneficial role in age-related cognition decline. The proposed method provides an edge in terms of identification and quantification of antioxidant constituents in a multi-component system. This method may also provide application for identification of correct plant sources used in the name of Shankhpushpi in marketed ayurvedic formulation, food supplement, and extracts.
  9,394 1,834 16
Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting
Divya Kumar, Nidhi Jain, Neha Gulati, Upendra Nagaich
January-March 2013, 4(1):9-17
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107495  PMID:23662277
Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.
  8,483 1,127 23
Formulation and in vitro evaluation of Eudragit S-100 coated naproxen matrix tablets for colon-targeted drug delivery system
Rohit Mehta, Anuj Chawla, Pooja Sharma, Pravin Pawar
January-March 2013, 4(1):31-41
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107498  PMID:23662280
The purpose of the present investigation was to prepare matrix tablets of naproxen using a hydrophobic polymer, i.e., Eudragit RLPO, RSPO, and combination of both, by wet granulation method. The tablets were further coated with different concentrations of Eudragit S-100, a pH-sensitive polymer, by dip immerse method. In vitro drug release studies of tablets were carried out in different dissolution media, i.e., 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2), phosphate buffers pH 6.8 and 7.4, with or without rat cecal content. The swelling studies of the optimized formulation were carried out. The physicochemical parameters of all the formulations were found to be in compliance with the pharmacopoeial standards. The effect of dissolution medium on the surface of matrix tablet was determined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy technique. The stability studies of all formulations were performed as per ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the tablets coated with Eudragit S-100 (2% w/v) showed a sustained release of 94.67% for 24 h, but drug release increased to about 98.60% for 24 h in the presence of rat cecal content while the uncoated tablets released the drug within 5 h. With regard to release kinetics, the data were best fitted with the Higuchi model with non-Fickian drug release kinetics mechanism. The stability studies of tablets showed less degradation during accelerated and room temperature storage conditions for 6 months. The enteric-coated Eudragit S-100 coated matrix tablets of naproxen showed promising site-specific drug delivery in the colon region.
  8,151 1,282 47
In vitro dissolution study of atorvastatin binary solid dispersion
Rahat Jahan, Md. Saiful Islam, Ahmad Tanwir, Jakir Ahmed Chowdhury
January-March 2013, 4(1):18-24
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107496  PMID:23662278
The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin (ATV), a slight water-soluble drug, by solid dispersion (SD) technique using a hydrophilic carrier Poloxamer 188 (POL188). Physical mixing (PM) and solvent evaporation (SE) method were used to prepare ATV-SD where different drug-carrier ratios were used. Prepared formulations were characterized in their solid state by solubility study; differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy which demonstrated changes in the formulations supporting the improved solubility. Percent content of POL188 in the SD matrix was found to play the pivotal role in the improvement of dissolution property of ATV. In case of PM, highest enhancement in drug release was found for 1:3 ratio (P < 0.05, ANOVA Single factor) whereas in case of SE, 3:0.5 ratio of ATV-POL188 resulted the maximum enhancement in ATV release (P < 0.05, ANOVA Single factor). Analysis of dissolution data of optimized formula indicated the best fitting with Peppas-Korsmeyer model and the drug release kinetics was fickian diffusion. In conclusion, binary SD prepared by both PM and SE technique using POL188 could be considered as a simple, efficient method to prepare ATV solid dispersions with significant improvement in the dissolution rate.
  4,660 595 10
Antitussive, expectorant activity of Marsilea minuta L., an Indian vegetable
Raja Chakraborty, Biplab De, N Devanna, Saikat Sen
January-March 2013, 4(1):61-64
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107502  PMID:23662283
Marsilea minuta L., an aquatic or sub-aquatic fern used as a vegetable, has wide applications in traditional/folk medicine in India and Bangladesh. In our study, we evaluated the antitussive, expectorant activity of M. minuta crude extracts. The antitussive activity of M. minuta methanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether extracts was evaluated using ammonia and sulfur dioxide induced mice coughing. The expectorant activity was evaluated by the volume of phenol red in mice's tracheas. Extracts significantly increased mice's cough latent period and inhibited the frequency of cough induced by ammonia and sulfur dioxide, and improved tracheal phenol red output in expectorant evaluation. Methanol extract produced the highest activity in all tested models. Methanol extract at 500 mg/kg showed 59.5% and 55.8% inhibition in the number of coughing induced by ammonium liquor and SO 2 , respectively, while it showed 89.3% increase in phenol red secretion at the same dose, which showed superior activity compared to other extracts. The present study provided evidence for M. minuta to be used as an antitussive and expectorant in Indian folk medicine.
  4,117 454 3
Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatographic, and a ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations
Selvadurai Muralidharan, Jaya Raja Kumar, Sokkalingam Arumugam Dhanara
January-March 2013, 4(1):65-68
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107503  PMID:23662284
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and ultraviolet (UV) methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMH) in pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC was carried out by reversed phase (RP) technique on an RP-18 column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (pH 3.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid [60:40, v/v]). UV method was performed with the λmax at 250 nm. Both the methods showed good linearity, reproducibility, and precision. No spectral or chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were found in UV and HPLC. The method was successfully applied to commercial tablets. Validation parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity were determined. The HPLC Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The UV LOD and LOQ for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance. The proposed economical method could be applicable for routine analysis of AMH and monitoring of the quality of marketed drugs.
  3,978 467 7
Pharmacophore modeling and 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of febrifugine analogues as potent antimalarial agent
Debanjan Sen, Tapan Kumar Chatterjee
January-March 2013, 4(1):50-60
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107501  PMID:23662282
Febrifugine and its derivatives are effective against Plasmodium falciparum. Using PHASE algorithm, a five-point pharmacophore model with two hydrogen bond acceptor (A), one positively ionizable (P) and two aromatic rings (R), was developed to derive a predictive ligand-based statistically significant 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model (r 2 = 0.972, SD = 0.3, F = 173.4, Q 2 = 0.712, RMSE = 0.3, Person-R = 0.94, and r 2 pred = 0.8) to explicate the structural attributes crucial for antimalarial activity. The developed pharmacophore model and 3D QSAR model can be a substantial tool for virtual screening and related antimalarial drug discovery research.
  3,887 487 9
Semisolid matrix-filled hard gelatin capsules for rapid dissolution of amlodipine besilate: Development and assessment
Vijay K Tyagi, Deshvir Singh, Kamla Pathak
January-March 2013, 4(1):42-49
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107499  PMID:23662281
The objective of the study was to prepare semisolid capsules (SSCs) of poorly water-soluble drug amlodipine besilate (AB) using a combination of technologies involving solid dispersion (SD) preparation and converting it into semisolid matrix filled in hard gelatin capsules (termed as SSCs) with the aim of reducing lag time in drug release and to improve the dissolution rate. AB is used for its anti-arrhythmic, anti-anginal, and anti-hypertensive activity. These are the emergency activities which should be treated as fast as possible like in the case of angina attack (heart attack). Any lag time that is generated due to its poor dissolution can add on in this emergency and that can be avoided by developing a readily dissolvable formulation: SDs of AB. SD of AB was prepared by fusion method using varying combinations of Poloxamer 407 and Plasdone S630. A total of nine batches (SD1−SD9) were characterized for the in vitro dissolution behavior in phosphate buffer pH7.4. SD8 with 95.8% cumulative drug release in 60 min, t50% = 4.1 min and DE 30 Min = 84.2% were selected for the development of the semisolid matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry of SD8 revealed molecular dispersion of AB and Plasdone S630 in Poloxamer 407. SD8 was then formulated as SSCs using gelucire 44/14 and PEG 400 as semisolid components and PEG 6000 as a suspending agent to achieve the reduction in lag time for drug release. A total of seven SSC formulations were prepared and evaluated for drug release. Formulation of SSC4 showed maximum cumulative drug release (CDR) of 98.9% within 20 min that was almost a threefold reduction in the time required to achieve similar CDR by SD of AB. Thus, SSCs present an excellent approach to enhance the dissolution as well as to reduce the lag time of dissolution for poor water-soluble drugs especially to those therapeutic classes that are intended for faster onset of action.
  3,889 344 5
New drug discovery: Where are we heading to?
MR Yadav
January-March 2013, 4(1):2-3
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107493  PMID:23662275
  3,515 439 3
SPER 2 nd Annual Conference: 09 th March 2013 at Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
Upendra Nagaich
January-March 2013, 4(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.107492  PMID:23662274
  2,752 326 1