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   2012| October-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 14, 2012

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Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs
Ciddi Veeresham
October-December 2012, 3(4):200-201
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104709  PMID:23378939
  22,721 4,767 218
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research
Upendra Nagaich
October-December 2012, 3(4):199-199
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104708  PMID:23378938
  3,340 9,184 -
Recent advances in pharmacotherapy of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Prasan R Bhandari
October-December 2012, 3(4):202-209
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104710  PMID:23378940
Nausea and vomiting remain among the most feared side effects of chemotherapy for cancer patients. Significant progress has been made in the last 15 years in developing more effective and better-tolerated measures to minimize chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). During the 1990s, the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists were first introduced for the treatment of CINV, and resulted in more effective and better tolerated treatment of CINV. Despite recent progress, however, a significant number of patients still develop CINV, particularly during the 2-5-day period (delayed emesis) following chemotherapy. There is evidence that this may be an underappreciated problem on the part of some caregivers. Recently, two new antiemetics, aprepitant, the first member of the neurokinin-1 antagonists, and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, received regulatory approval in the U.S. Both represent useful additions to the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of CINV.
  9,437 899 11
Quantitative analysis of Glycyrrhizic acid from a polyherbal preparation using liquid chromatographic technique
Amit K De, Sriparna Datta, Arup Mukherjee
October-December 2012, 3(4):210-215
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104711  PMID:23378941
Glycyrrhizic acid has been used in Indian traditional medicine for ages. It is obtained from the root extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra. There is seasonal variation of Glycyrrhizic acid content in the roots of the plant. So a proper method for quantification of the same is necessary from the polyherbal preparation available in the market. A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method have been developed for the quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizic acid from polyherbal preparation containing aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra using a photodiode array detector. The identity confirmation was carried out using mass spectrometry. Baseline resolution of the glycyrrhizic acid peak was achieved on a reverse phase C18 column (125 mm × 4.0 mm, 5 μ) using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 5.3 mM phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio 65:35 v/v. Chromatograms were monitored at 252 nm.5.3 mM phosphate buffer was replaced with 0.5mM ammonium acetate buffer in the mobile phase when MS detector was used. The method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 12.4 to124 μg/ml with a correlation co-efficient of 0.999. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 3.08 μg/ml and 10.27 μg/ml respectively. The average recovery from three spike levels was 99.93 ± 0.26%. Identity confirmation of the chromatographic peak was achieved by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and similar molecular ion peak was obtained for both sample and standard. The developed method is suitable for the routine analysis, stability testing and assay of glycyrrhizic acid from polyherbal preparations containing aqueous extracts of Glycyrrhizaglabra.
  5,690 610 1
A simple Ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the determination of etoricoxib in dosage formulations
Shipra Singh, Amrita Mishra, Anurag Verma, Ashoke K Ghosh, Arun K Mishra
October-December 2012, 3(4):237-240
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104715  PMID:23378945
The present study was undertaken to develop a validated, rapid, simple, and low-cost ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric method for estimating Etoricoxib (ETX) in pharmaceutical formulations. The analysis was performed on λ max 233 nm using 0.1 M HCl as blank/diluent. The proposed method was validated on International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines including parameters as linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and specificity. The proposed method was also used to access the content of the ETX in two commercial brands of Indian market. Beer's law was obeyed in concentration range of 0.1-0.5 μg/ml, and the regression equation was Y = 0.418x + 0.018. The mean accuracy values for 0.1 μg/ml and 0.2 μg/ml concentration of ETX were found to be 99.76 ± 0.52% and 99.12 ± 0.84, respectively, and relative standard deviation (RSD) of interday and intraday was less than 2%. The developed method was suitable and specific to the analysis of ETX even in the presence of common excipients. The method was applied on two different marketed brands and ETX contents were 98.5 ± 0.56 and 99.33 ± 0.44, respectively, of labeled claim. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically good results were obtained. This method can be employed for routine analysis of ETX in bulk and commercial formulations.
  4,315 410 19
Terpenes: Effect of lipophilicity in enhancing transdermal delivery of alfuzosin hydrochloride
D Prasanthi, PK Lakshmi
October-December 2012, 3(4):216-223
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104712  PMID:23378942
Transdermal drug delivery has attracted much attention as an alternative to intravenous and oral methods of delivery. But the main barrier is stratum corneum. Terpenes classes of chemical enhancers are used in transdermal formulations for facilitating penetration of drugs. The aim of the study is to evaluate terpenes as skin penetration enhancers and correlate its relationship with permeation and lipophilicity. In this study, alfuzosin hydrochloride (AH) hydrogels were prepared with terpenes using Taguchi orthogonal array experimental design. The formulations contained one of eight terpenes, based on their lipophilicity (log P 2.13-5.36). The percutaneous permeation was studied in rat skin using diffusion cell technique. Flux, cumulative amount, lag time and skin content of AH were measured over 24 hours and compared with control gels. Nerolidol with highest lipophilicity (log P 5.36 ± 0.38) showed highest cumulative amount (Q 24 ) of 647.29 ± 18.76 μg/cm 2 and fluxrateof 28.16 ± 0.64 μg/cm 2 /hour. It showed decreased lag time of 0.76 ± 0.15 hours. Fenchone (2.5%) (log P 2.13 ± 0.30) produced the longest lag time 4.8 ± 0.20 hours. The rank order of enhancement effect was shown as nerolidol > farnesol > limonene > linalool > geraniol > carvone > fenchone > menthol. Lowest skin content was seen with carvone. Increase in lipophilicity of terpenes showed increase in flux, cumulative amount (Q 24 ), and enhancement ratio which was significant with P < 0.000. But lag time was decreased and no correlation was found between lipophilicity and skin content. Histological studies showed changes in dermis which can be attributed to disruption of lipid packing of stratum corneum due to effect of nerolidol within lipid lamellae. It was found that small alcoholic terpenes with high degree of unsaturation enhance permeation of hydrophilic drugs, liquid terpenes enhance better than solid terpenes and terpenes with high lipophilicity are good penetration enhancers.
  4,089 421 13
Design and development of controlled porosity osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride
Sadhana R Shahi, Nityanand S Zadbuke, Bhushan Gulecha, Shantanu S Shivanikar, Shivram B Shinde
October-December 2012, 3(4):229-236
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104714  PMID:23378944
The present work aims towards the design and development of extended release formulation of freely water-soluble drug diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ) based on osmotic technology by using controlled porosity approach. DLTZ is an ideal candidate for a zero-order drug delivery system because it is freely water-soluble and has a short half-life (2-3 h). Sodium chloride (Osmogen) was added to the core tablet to alter the solubility of DLTZ in an aqueous medium. Cellulose acetate (CA) and sorbitol were used as semipermeable membrane and pore former, respectively. The effect of different formulation variables namely concentration of osmogen in the core tablet, % pore former, % weight gain, pH of the dissolution medium and agitation intensity on the in vitro release was studied. DLTZ release was directly proportional to % pore former and inversely proportional to % weight gain. The optimized formulation (F8) delivered DLTZ independent of pH and agitation intensity for 12 h at the upper level concentration of % pore former (25% w/w) and middle level concentration of % weight gain (6% w/w). The comparative study of elementary osmotic pump (EOP) and controlled porosity osmotic pump revealed that it superior than conventional EOP and also easier and cost effective to formulate.
  3,572 474 3
Hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum wall ex Royle and the mechanism of action in diet-induced obese rats
Arun Koorappally Subash, Anu Augustine
October-December 2012, 3(4):224-228
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.104713  PMID:23378943
Aconitum heterophyllum is an endangered Himalayan plant included in "lekhaneyagana," a pharmacological classification mentioned by Charaka in "Charakasamhita" which means reduce excess fat. The subterranean part of the plant is used for the treatment of diseases like nervous system disorders, fever, diarrhea, obesity, etc. In the present study, we are reporting the hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of A. heterophyllum. The methanol extract of A. heterophyllum was orally administered in diet-induced obese rats. After four weeks treatment, blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum lipids and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Liver was collected for the assay of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR). The fecal samples were also collected to estimate the fecal fat content. The A. heterophyllum treatment markedly lowered total cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B concentrations in blood serum. It also showed positive effects (increase) on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations. On the other hand, A. heterophyllum treatment lowered HMGR activity, which helps to reduce endogenous cholesterol synthesis and also activated LCAT, helping increase in HDL-c. An increase in fecal fat content is also an indication of the hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum. The significant hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum may be linked to its ability to inhibit HMGR activity and block intestinal fat absorption. The increase in HDL-c may be linked to its ability to activate LCAT enzyme.
  3,628 388 6