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   2012| July-September  | Volume 3 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 14, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development of an ex vivo model for pharmacological experimentation on isolated tissue preparation
Gaurav Jain, Surendra H Bodakse, Kantaprasad Namdev, Mithun S Rajput, Saurabh Mishra
July-September 2012, 3(3):176-181
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101013  PMID:23057004
Pharmacology as a subject depends largely on experiments conducted in laboratory animals. Experimental animals like rat, guinea pig, rabbit, etc. are used for the biological assay. For the teaching purposes to use isolated strip preparations from various organs, the laboratory animal species has to be sacrificed just for a piece of tissue. The present study was aimed to develop ex vivo model for pharmacological experimentation, which will mimic the actual laboratory condition without sacrificing the experimental animals. Dose response curve of acetylcholine alone and in presence of different concentrations of atropine was plotted using isolated chicken ileum, chicken duodenum, rat ileum, and rat duodenum and their EC 50 values were compared. The effect of atropine in terms of its type of antagonism was predicted based on Schild plot and pA 2 values were obtained. The chicken ileum and duodenum were also evaluated for four- and three-point bioassay, respectively. The results suggested that acetylcholine produced a dose-dependent increase in contraction in both chicken and rat ileum and duodenum preparation. The concentration response curve of acetylcholine in chicken ileum shifted toward left side of rat ileum with a higher EC 50 value. Atropine shifted the concentration response curve of acetylcholine toward right with a change in EC 50 value. Schild plots indicated that antagonism produced by atropine was found to be competitive in nature. The pA 2 values of atropine were found significantly high with isolated chicken ileum as compared to rat ileum preparation. It is concluded that isolated chicken ileum and duodenum preparation can be employed for routine experiments of pharmacology subject and the use of these isolated preparations is a novel approach for managing pharmacological experiments and importantly, without sacrificing the experimental animals.
  13,410 1,083 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Novel drug delivery approaches on antiviral and antiretroviral agents
Pooja Sharma, Anuj Chawla, Sandeep Arora, Pravin Pawar
July-September 2012, 3(3):147-159
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101007  PMID:23057001
Viruses have the property to replicate very fast in host cell. It can attack any part of host cell. Therefore, the clinical efficacy of antiviral drugs and its bioavailability is more important concern taken into account to treat viral infections. The oral and parenteral routes of drug administration have several shortcomings, however, which could lead to the search for formulating better delivery systems. Now, a day's novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) proved to be a better approach to enhance the effectiveness of the antivirals and improve the patient compliance and decrease the adverse effect. The NDDS have reduced the dosing frequency and shorten the duration of treatment, thus, which could lead the treatment more cost-effective. The development of NDDS for antiviral and antiretroviral therapy aims to deliver the drug devoid of toxicity, with high compatibility and biodegradability, targeting the drug to specific sites for viral infection and in some instances it also avoid the first pass metabolism effect. This article aims to discuss the usefulness of novel delivery approaches of antiviral agents such as niosomes, microspheres, microemulsions, nanoparticles that are used in the treatment of various Herpes viruses and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections.
  9,727 924 13
Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review
SH Ansari, Farha Islam, Mohd. Sameem
July-September 2012, 3(3):142-146
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101006  PMID:23057000
Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines . Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others.
  8,105 1,669 51
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
In vitro-in vivo evaluation of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersion of pioglitazone hydrochloride
Vinay Pandit, Roopa S Pai, Kusum Devi, Sarasija Suresh
July-September 2012, 3(3):160-170
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101008  PMID:23057002
Investigation of in vitro/in vivo behavior of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersions of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) is the focus of the present research work. The effect of various hydrophilic polymers on the aqueous solubility of PIO was studied. Poly vinyl pyrrolidine K 30 (PVPK 30) carrier was selected and solid dispersions were prepared by various methods. Evaluation of solid dispersion for percentage yield, drug content, solubility, and Fourier Transform Infrared-indicated kneading method was most appropriate. Furthermore, the dissolution studies exhibited an enhancement in drug dissolution. One-way ANOVA of in vitro data suggested that there was significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference in dissolution profile of PIO solid dispersion when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction performed on solid dispersion indicated lack of physicochemical interaction between the drug and the carrier. The selected formulation is compressed into fast-dissolving tablets which were further evaluated for tablet properties and in vitro drug release. In vivo studies of pure drug, selected formulation, and marketed product were carried out in male Wistar rats and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using Kinetica software 2000. The best formulation has shown T max of 1 hour which was highly significant (P < 0.01) when compared with pure drug and marketed formulation. Therefore, the solid dispersions prepared by kneading method using PVPK 30 as hydrophilic carrier can be successfully used for improvement of dissolution of PIO and resulted in faster onset of action as indicated by in vivo studies.
  6,311 728 7
Development of starch-gelatin complex microspheres as sustained release delivery system
BN Vedha Hari, T Praneetha, T Prathyusha, K Mounika, D Ramya Devi
July-September 2012, 3(3):182-187
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101015  PMID:23057005
The starch was isolated from jackfruit seeds and evaluated for its preformulation properties, like tapped density, bulk density, and particle size. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was done and compared with that of the commercially available starch which confirmed the properties. Using the various concentrations of jackfruit seed starch, the microspheres were prepared, combining with gelatin by ionotropic gelation technique. The developed microspheres were subjected to analysis of particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and percentage yield. The spectral analysis confirmed the presence of drug and absence of interactions. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the particles were in spherical shape with a rough surface. The in vitro drug release in water for 12 hours proved to be in the range of 89 to 100%. The various kinetic models were applied using release data to confirm the mechanism of drug. It was concluded that the jackfruit starch-gelatin microspheres gave satisfactory results and met pharmacopieal limits.
  5,691 505 4
Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity
Dayanand M Kannur, Mukta P Paranjpe, Lalit V Sonavane, Prerana P Dongre, Kishanchand R Khandelwal
July-September 2012, 3(3):171-175
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101010  PMID:23057003
In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students' 't' test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.
  3,476 343 11
Cardioprotective potential of simvastatin in the hyperhomocysteinemic rat heart
Ankur Rohilla, MU Khan, Razia Khanam
July-September 2012, 3(3):193-198
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101018  PMID:23057007
The present study investigated the probable role of simvastatin, 3-hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, in abrogated cardioprotection in hyperhomocysteinemic (Hhcy) rat hearts. Isolated Langendorff's perfused normal and Hhcy rat hearts were subjected to 30-min global ischemia (I) followed by 120-min reperfusion (R). Assessment of myocardial damage was done by measuring infarct size and analyzing the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) in coronary effluent. In addition, the oxidative stress in the heart was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion generation. I/R produced myocardial injury in normal and Hhcy rat hearts by increasing myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK in coronary effluent and oxidative stress. Hhcy rat hearts showed enhanced myocardial injury and high oxidative stress as compared to normal hearts. Treatment with Simvastatin (10 μMol) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal and hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts as assessed in terms of reductions in myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK levels in coronary effluent and oxidative stress. The reductions in the high degree of oxidative stress may be responsible for the observed cardioprotection afforded by simvastatin against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal and hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts.
  3,325 275 10
Protective role of fibrates in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion
G Singh, MU Khan, R Khanam
July-September 2012, 3(3):188-192
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101016  PMID:23057006
Prevention of myocardial injury has been considered as the most important therapeutic challenge of today. Fibrates, the agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-a receptor, have been regarded as potent therapeutic agents in this context. Hence, the present study has been designed to investigate the effect of fibrates, i.e., Clofibrate and Fenofibrate, the potent agonists PPAR-a, on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. The isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 120 minutes. Myocardial infarct size and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in coronary effluent have been conducted to assess the degree of cardiac injury. Moreover, the oxidative stress in the heart was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione. Clofibrate and Fenofibrate showed cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in rat hearts as assessed in terms of reductions in myocardial infarct size, LDH, and CK levels in coronary effluent along with reduction in I/R-induced oxidative stress. It may be concluded that the observed cardioprotective potential of Clofibrate and Fenofibrate against I/R-induced myocardial injury was due to the reductions in infarct size and oxidative stress.
  2,966 256 15
EDITORIAL
SPER 1 st Annual Conference on "PharmaVision: Raising awareness towards recent advancement in pharmaceutical research"
Upendra Nagaich
July-September 2012, 3(3):139-140
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101003  PMID:23056998
  2,432 277 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Pharmaceutical education and research
Ashoke K Ghosh
July-September 2012, 3(3):141-141
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.101004  PMID:23056999
  2,420 275 -
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