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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| January-March  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 6, 2012

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Response surface methodology and process optimization of sustained release pellets using Taguchi orthogonal array design and central composite design
Gurinder Singh, Roopa S Pai, V Kusum Devi
January-March 2012, 3(1):30-40
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93565  PMID:22470891
Furosemide is a powerful diuretic and antihypertensive drug which has low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 2 hours. To overcome the above drawback, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate sustained release (SR) pellets of furosemide for oral administration prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Drug Coat L-100 was used within the pellet core along with microcrystalline cellulose as the diluent and concentration of selected binder was optimized to be 1.2%. The formulation was prepared with drug to polymer ratio 1:3. It was optimized using Design of Experiments by employing a 3 2 central composite design that was used to systematically optimize the process parameters combined with response surface methodology. Dissolution studies were carried out with USP apparatus Type I (basket type) in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH. The statistical technique, i.e., the two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA of in vitro data has proposed that there was very significant ( P≤0.05) difference in dissolution profile of furosemide SR pellets when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Validation of the process optimization study indicated an extremely high degree of prognostic ability. The study effectively undertook the development of optimized process parameters of pelletization of furosemide pellets with tremendous SR characteristics.
  7 6,747 898
Chitosan-alginate microcapsules of amoxicillin for gastric stability and mucoadhesion
Saahil Arora, RD Budhiraja
January-March 2012, 3(1):68-74
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93555  PMID:22470897
Amoxicillin-loaded microcapsules were prepared by ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (ALG) with chitosan (CS) in presence of calcium chloride as gastroretentive delivery system. The effect of pH, concentration of ALG, CS and calcium chloride, and drug : ALG ratio were optimized in this study for minimizing the degradation of drug in acidic environment and increasing the loading efficacy and mucoadhesive efficiency of microcapsules. The optimum condition for prepared CS-ALG microcapsules was 2%w/v ALG, 0.75%w/v CS (pH5.0), and 1.0% w/v calcium chloride. The resulting microcapsules had drug entrapment efficiency of 84% and average size of 840 mm. CS concentration significantly influenced particle size and encapsulation efficiency of CS-ALG microcapsules (P<0.05). Decrease in the drug: ALG ratio resulted in an increased release of amoxicillin in acidic media. The relative decomposition of drug after encapsulation in CS-ALG microcapsules was decreased to 20.7%, 41.9%, and 83.3% in 2, 4, and 8 hours, respectively.
  6 5,241 579
Antidiabetic effect of a black mangrove species Aegiceras corniculatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
S Gurudeeban, K Satyavani, T Ramanathan, T Balasubramanian
January-March 2012, 3(1):52-56
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93560  PMID:22470894
Earlier ethnopharmacological records divulged the traditional usages of mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco distributed in coastal and estuarine areas of Southeast India. Excluding scientific knowledge of A. corniculatum against diabetes an upgrowing endocrinal disorder, our present study evaluated the effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult rats of the Wistar strain by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. The experimental rats were administered with leaf suspension of A. corniculatum post orally using an intragastric tube. On completion of the 60-day treatment, a range of biochemical parameters were tested including liver hexokinase, glucose-6phosphatase and fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase in the liver of control and allaxon-diabetic rats. As a result, A. corniculatum leaf suspension showed moderate reduction in blood glucose (from 382 ± 34 to 105 ± 35), glycosylated hemoglobin, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase, and an increase activity of liver hexokinase achieved through the oral administration of extract on 100 mg/kg. The present findings support promising results in terms of antidiabetic activities establishing its candidacy for further purification of individual compound in order to understand their mechanism of action.
  4 4,342 510
Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system
Dilipkumar Pal, Subham Banerjee, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh
January-March 2012, 3(1):16-24
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93561  PMID:22470889
Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system's response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.
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Design, synthesis, and antimicrobial screening of novel pyridyl-2-amidrazone incorporated isatin mannich bases
N Saravana Kumar, T Pradeep, G Jani, Divya Silpa, B Vijaya Kumar
January-March 2012, 3(1):57-61
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93559  PMID:22470895
Isatin is an endogenous compound and reported to possess a wide range of biological activities. Numerous papers have shown that the pyridyl-2-amidrazone nucleus possesses a potent antimicrobial activity . Based on these prior observations, we postulated that a compound containing both isatin and pyridyl-2-amidrazone pharmacophores could be very effective for antimicrobial activity. Unfavorable adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties can in many cases lead to the clinical trials failure of potentially successful drug candidates. Their evaluation, therefore, at an earlier stage is desired. Here, we also present the predicted ADME properties of our ligands through computation. All the compounds (2a1 - 5 ) exhibited a better solubility, diffusion, Log P, molecular weight, etc., with no violations making the ligands pharmacodynamically active and better oral absorptive series. Based on the results of computational design, a series of novel pyridyl-2-amidrazone-incorporated isatin Mannich bases were synthesized and screened for their antimicrobial activities. IR, 1 H-NMR, and Mass Spectroscopy data were consistent with the assigned structures. The results exhibited that all of the lead compounds showed good antimicrobial activities; noticeably, the compound 2a 2 showed the best activity against Candida albicans (16 μ g/ml) and compound 2a 3 was found to be the most active derivative against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at minimal inhibitory concentration values of 4 and 32 μ g/ml, respectively.
  2 5,007 432
Incidence of adverse drug reactions in human immune deficiency virus-positive patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy
B Akshaya Srikanth, S Chandra Babu, Harlokesh Narayan Yadav, Sunil Kumar Jain
January-March 2012, 3(1):62-67
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93557  PMID:22470896
To estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To identify the risk factors associated with ADRs in HIV patients. To analyze reported ADRs based on various parameters like causality, severity, predictability, and preventability. Retrospective case-control study. An 18-month retrospective case-control study of 208 patients newly registered in ART center, RIMS hospital, Kadapa, were intensively monitored for ADRs to HAART. Predictability was calculated based on the history of previous exposure to drug. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for estimating the correlation between ADRs and different variables. All statistical calculations were performed using EpiInfo version 3.5.3. Monitoring of 208 retrospective patients by active Pharmacovigilance identified 105 ADRs that were identified in 71 patients. Skin rash and anemia were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was skin and appendages (31.57%). The ADRs that were moderate were 90.14% of cases. The incidence of ADRs (53.52%) was higher with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. CD4 cell count less than <250 cells/μl were 80.28%, male gender were observed to be the risk factors for ADRs. Our study finding showed that there is a need of active pharmaceutical care with intensive monitoring for ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients who are illiterate, of male and female gender, with CD4 count ≤250 cells/mm 3 with comorbid conditions.
  1 5,902 663
Hypoglycemic activity of Cassia javanica Linn. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Urmila C Kumavat, Shraddha N Shimpi, Sandesh P Jagdale
January-March 2012, 3(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93562  PMID:22470893
In present work, one of the ornamentals and medicinally less known plant Cassia javanica has been explored for hypoglycemic potential. It aimed to check the hypoglycemic effect of C. javanica leaves on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by acute and sub-acute studies. Prior to the hypoglycemic study, acute oral toxicity testing of drug was performed. Later, the effects of single and multiple doses of test drug were studied using various parameters. Dried powdered leaf material was used as an oral drug. The preliminary phytochemistry of drug was done by standard qualitative tests. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Single and multiple doses of test drug (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) were given to normal and diabetic rats. The parameters studied were blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum proteins. The results of test drug were compared with standard hypoglycemic drug-glibenclamide (0.01 g/kg/day). Statistical analysis was done by 'Student's 't' test' and one way ANOVA test. In preliminary phytochemistry, antidiabetic compounds were detected. Unlike acute, subacute treatment of test drug showed highly significant reduction (37.62%) in blood glucose level of diabetic rats in ten days. This effect was considerably good in comparison with standard drug (63.51%). The test drug and standard drug exhibited insignificant change in the abnormal levels of serum metabolites of diabetic rats. Preclinically, C. javanica was proved to be effective hypoglycemic agent.
  1 3,967 385
Use of minocycline as systemic antimicrobial therapy in refractory periodontitis with chronic gingival enlargement
Parag M Khatri, Rajesh Kumar
January-March 2012, 3(1):75-79
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93552  PMID:22470898
Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease having various risk factors, but a dynamic interaction between bacterial products and host response in association with genetic and environmental factors is considered as the primary cause for periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis. This bacterial-host interaction which is ever-so-present in periodontitis directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report present a case of a female patient with recurrent periodontal infections with gingival enlargement treated with systemic Minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach.
  - 4,565 264
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research
Upendra Nagaich
January-March 2012, 3(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93553  PMID:22470885
  - 2,977 311
Drug discovery: Past and present
Rajani Giridhar
January-March 2012, 3(1):2-2
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93554  PMID:22470886
  - 3,260 376
Technological study of preparing gel from semi-solid extract of Cacalia hastata L.
D Jambaninj, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Syed Wasif Gillani, TS Davaasuren, G Erdenetsetseg, D Dungerdorj
January-March 2012, 3(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93564  PMID:22470890
Most of the drugs which are used for wound healing are imported in Mongolia. It is required to develop drug formulation and increase local productions used for the treatment of wound healing. For the purpose of solving the above problems, we aimed to prepare new drug formulation from Cacalia hastata L. for the treatment of wound healing. Cacalia hastata L. is a medicinal plant, member of the family Asteraceae. Cacalia hastata L. is widely used for the Mongolian traditional medicine to treat wound healing, gastric ulcer, poisoning fever, liver fever, bile fever, oral cavity, and gynecological diseases. We prepared Cacalia gel from semi-solid extract of Cacalia hastata L. using various excipients such as gel former, solvent, neutralizer, antimicrobial preservative, and humectant. Gel formulation was standardized by such criteria, as the amount of biologically active compound, appearance (color, smell), pH, viscosity, and bacterial contamination. Stability testing of gel formulation was studied by long-term method. The quality of the Cacalia gel which was stored in room temperature, its appearance, viscosity, and amount of biological active compound were stable. The stability testing of the gel formulation from Cacalia hastata L. is continued.
  - 3,677 362
Effect of different solvent extracts of Benincasa hispida T. on experimental hypochlorhydria in rat
Upanandan Mandal, Debasis De, Kazi Monjur Ali, Anjan Biswas, Debidas Ghosh
January-March 2012, 3(1):41-46
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93563  PMID:22470892
Hypochlorhydria is a common problem in any age of people like other gastric disorders. It has so many etiologies such as sympathetic dominance, antiseretory drug use, excess sugar and refined foods, etc. In the present study, our objective was to search out the effective solvent extract of fruit of Benincasa hispida T. for the management of hypochlorhydria in model male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria was induced in rat as per standard method by oral administration of ranitidine. Different solvent extracts (Hydro-methanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous) of ripe fruit of B. hispida were prepared following the standard protocol. Various parameters in this concern like free acidity, total acidity, pH, pepsin concentration, chloride and vitamin C levels in gastric juice were measured by standard biochemical and titrimetric methods. It was found that pre-administration followed by co-administration of aqueous extract of B. hispida (ABH) resulted significant correction of ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria in rat. This aqueous extract-treated group showed increased levels of vitamin C, pepsin, and chloride concentration in gastric juice as well as the antioxidant status significantly (P<0.05) in respect to other extract-treated groups. From the results, it can be concluded that the ABH has most effective anti-hypochlorhydric and antioxidative efficacy than other solvent extracts of said plant fruit.
  - 3,785 337
Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool
Rewanthwar Swathi Latha, PK Lakshmi
January-March 2012, 3(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93556  PMID:22470887
Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.
  - 8,128 698
Intraperiodontal pocket: An ideal route for local antimicrobial drug delivery
Sreeja C Nair, KR Anoop
January-March 2012, 3(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.93558  PMID:22470888
Periodontal pockets act as a natural reservoir filled with gingival crevicular fluid for the controlled release delivery of antimicrobials directly. This article reflects the present status of nonsurgical controlled local intrapocket delivery of antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. These sites have specialty in terms of anatomy, permeability, and their ability to retain a delivery system for a desired length of time. A number of antimicrobial products and the composition of the delivery systems, its use, clinical results, and their release are summarized. The goal in using an intrapocket device for the delivery of an antimicrobial agent is the achievement and maintenance of therapeutic drug concentration for the desired period of time. Novel controlled drug delivery system are capable of improving patient compliance as well as therapeutic efficacy with precise control of the rate by which a particular drug dosage is released from a delivery system without the need for frequent administration. These are considered superior drug delivery system because of low cost, greater stability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and are biodegradable in nature. This review also focus on the importance and ideal features of periodontal pockets as a drug delivery platform for designing a suitable dosage form along with its potential advantage and limitations. The microbes in the periodontal pocket could destroy periodontal tissues, and a complete knowledge of these as well as an ideal treatment strategy could be helpful in treating this disease.
  - 8,661 741