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   2011| July-September  | Volume 2 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 29, 2011

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Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension
Subhashree Sahoo, Chandra Kanti Chakraborti, Subash Chandra Mishra
July-September 2011, 2(3):195-204
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85541  PMID:22171318
Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934) suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region) and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region) Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg's angle (2q) of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.
  13,327 630 41
Lornoxicam gastro retentive floating matrix tablets: Design and in vitro evaluation
S Sathiyaraj, Ramya D Devi, Vedha B.N Hari
July-September 2011, 2(3):156-162
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85531  PMID:22171312
The objective of this present investigation is to prolong the gastric residence time of Lornoxicam by fabricating it into a floating sustained release matrix tablets. Lornoxicam, a potent oxicam group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, suffers from relatively short half life of 2 to 3 hrs showing maximal absorption in proximal gastro intestinal tract region necessitating its need to be formulated as a floating sustained release matrix tablets. In this current investigation, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K15M, a high viscous grade polymer with apparent viscosity of 15,000 cps, was kept as a variable (10-50%) and calcium carbonate (13%) was used as a gas generator. The prepared blends were subjected for its pre-formulation characterization. The directly compressed tablets were evaluated for physical parameters such as weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, in-vitro buoyancy with axial and radial enlargement measurement, swelling index. From the investigation it was observed that the buoyancy lasted for up to 24 hrs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy peaks assured the compatibility of the drug with excipients and confirmed the presence of pure drug in the formulation. It was supported by in-vitro dissolution studies; and the dissolution data was subjected to various release kinetic models to understand the mechanism of drug release.
  9,973 955 5
Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation
Reshmy Rajan, Shoma Jose, VP Biju Mukund, Deepa T Vasudevan
July-September 2011, 2(3):138-143
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85524  PMID:22171309
Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.
  8,199 937 61
Formulation and evaluation of controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum
Gurpreet Arora, Karan Malik, Inderbir Singh, Sandeep Arora, Vikas Rana
July-September 2011, 2(3):163-169
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85534  PMID:22171313
The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w). The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer) and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm 2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4). Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4) with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations.
  7,315 764 38
Evaluation of several microcrystalline celluloses obtained from agricultural by-products
John Rojas, Alvin Lopez, Santiago Guisao, Carlos Ortiz
July-September 2011, 2(3):144-150
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85527  PMID:22171310
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCCI) has been widely used as an excipient for direct compression due to its good flowability, compressibility, and compactibility. In this study, MCCI was obtained from agricultural by-products, such as corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, rice husk, and cotton by pursuing acid hydrolysis, neutralization, clarification, and drying steps. Further, infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, degree of polymerization (DP), and powder and tableting properties were evaluated and compared to those of Avicel PH101, Avicel PH102, and Avicel PH200. Except for the commercial products, all materials showed a DP from 55 to 97. Particles of commercial products and corn cob had an irregular shape, whereas bagasse particles were elongated and thick. Rice and cotton particles exhibited a flake-like and fiber-like shape, respectively. MCCI as obtained from rice husk and cotton was the most densified material, while that produced from corn cob and bagasse was bulky, porous, and more compressible. All products had a moisture content of less than 10% and yields from 7.4% to 60.4%. MCCI as obtained from bagasse was the most porous and compressible material among all materials. This product also showed the best tableting properties along with Avicel products. Likewise, all MCCI products obtained from the above-mentioned sources showed a more rapid disintegration time than that of Avicel products. These materials can be used as a potential source of MCCI in the production of solid dosage forms.
  7,474 580 29
Rabeprazole sodium delayed-release multiparticulates: Effect of enteric coating layers on product performance
Rakesh N Tirpude, Prashant K Puranik
July-September 2011, 2(3):184-191
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85539  PMID:22171316
Rabeprazole sodium is one of the most effective proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) used in antiulcer therapy. Like most other PPIs, owing to its acid-labile nature, the drug is formulated as enteric-coated dosage form. Conventional means of producing delayed release multiparticulate dosage forms of PPIs require large quantities of enteric polymer coatings. In the present study, in order to better evaluate the effect of polymeric coating on product performance, the pellet core structure and composition was kept constant. Four different enteric-coating formulations and designs were evaluated. Enteric-coated drug multiparticulates prepared with single polymeric coatings (acrylic or cellulosic) were compared with two different polymeric layer coatings to evaluate the effectiveness of latter coatings in more effectively producing a better rabeprazole sodium delayed-release pellet product. The pH-dependent, enteric acrylic, and cellulosic polymers were used either alone, in combination, or applied one over the other to impart delayed-release properties to the core drug pellets. It was demonstrated that dual delayed-release coating with two different enteric polymers-an inner acrylic coating followed by an outer cellulosic coating-yields the best product that provides all the desired physicochemical and drug dissolution characteristics.
  7,209 745 14
Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs
Dheeraj P Jain, Shyam S Pancholi, Rakesh Patel
July-September 2011, 2(3):177-183
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85538  PMID:22171315
Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.
  6,976 753 43
A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic practical approach for determination of flurbiprofen
Muhammad Akhlaq, Gul Majid Khan, Abdul Wahab, Arshad Khan, Abid Hussain, Asif Nawaz, Hamdy Abdelkader
July-September 2011, 2(3):151-155
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85529  PMID:22171311
A simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for flurbiprofen has been developed and validated practically. The chromatography was conducted using Gemini C18 column (5 μm; 4.6 mm × 250 mm, Phenomenex, California, USA). The mobile phase containing disodium hydrogen phosphate solution (30 mM) pH 7.0 and acetonitrile (50:50); and the isocratic flow rate of 1.0 ml/min were used in the current study. Detection was made at 247 nm. The calibration curve was linear (r ≥ 0.9996) over the concentration range of 5-50 mm/ml. Mean percentage (%) recovery ± % relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 97.07 ± 0.008 to 103.66 ± 0.013. Within-day and between-day precision were also in acceptable range of 98.83 ± 0.004 to 104.56 ± 0.009. In order to confirm the practical applicability of the method developed, flurbiprofen controlled release matrix tablets were subjected to the dissolution studies and the release rate was analyzed. The reported HPLC for flurbiprofen provides several advantages of simplicity, high specificity, accuracy, and very short run-cycle time. It is suggested that the method should be used for the routine quality control analysis of flurbiprofen pure drug and its dosage forms.
  5,695 415 12
Reduction in drop size of ophthalmic topical drop preparations and the impact of treatment
Shiva Kumar, Roopa Karki, Marreddy Meena, Tigari Prakash, Tanniru Rajeswari, Divakar Goli
July-September 2011, 2(3):192-194
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85540  PMID:22171317
In this work we devised a method to create smaller eye drops of the glaucoma medication timolol maleate by altering the dropper tip design and changing the physical properties of the formulation. Most ocular diseases are treated with topical application of eye drops. After instillation of an eye drop, typically, less than 5% of the applied drug penetrates the cornea and reaches the intraocular tissues; the major fraction of the instilled drug is absorbed and enters the systemic circulation. Ophthalmic solutions are available in multidose or single-dose glass/plastic dropper bottles that deliver drops with a volume that ranges from 25 μL to 70 μL (average 40 μL). Because of the low capacity of the precorneal area, the optimal drop volume is about 20 μL; with larger volumes there is the risk of adverse systemic effects due to absorption of the drug via the nasal mucosa. Thus, both from the biopharmaceutical and economic point of view, drops of only 5-15 mL volume should be instilled into the eye. In this present work we devised a method to reduce the size of the drop by inserting a glass capillary tube into the dropper tip and by changing the physical properties of the formulation (by altering the concentration of Tween 80™, i.e., 0.05% and 0.1% of Tween 80™). We measured the drop sizes of the different timolol eye drop formulations available in the market and estimated the yearly cost of the medications. Our timolol maleate formulation with 0.1% concentration of Tween 80™ delivered through the dropper tip with the inserted glass capillary was shown to be better than the other formulations available in the market in terms of ability to deliver smaller drops, meaning that each bottle would last longer and that the yearly cost of treatment would be lower.
  4,183 362 22
Effect of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc root extracts on behavioral and radiology changes in arthritic rats
Madan L Kaushik, Sunil S Jalalpure
July-September 2011, 2(3):170-176
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85537  PMID:22171314
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol root extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc (Family: Zingiberaceae) on behavioral and radiology aspects of Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA)-induced monoarthritis in left ankle joint of rats using open-field test. Traditionally, Curcuma zedoaria root has been used as anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic drug. Behavioral aspects include latency time to explore, ambulatory, rearing, grooming, urination, and defecation. Animals were divided into ten groups each of six rats, all the animals were subjected to open-field test before the induction of arthritis at 0 day and thereafter 3, 7, 14 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of postinoculation FCA injection. The rat was placed in an open field and observed all behavioral aspects for 5 minutes and radiography analysis was made on day 42. Selected doses were 10 mg/kg.i.p. Indomethacin 200 mg/kg.p.o. marketed herbal drug Rumalaya forte and 200 and 400 mg/kg.p.o. of each extracts, respectively. The results showed significant decrease in ambulation and rearing; however, increase in latency time to explore and grooming, urination, and defecation in control group, but in contrast, drug-treated groups showed significant recovery in all behavioral aspects except methanol groups. On the basis of radiography examination, control and methanol groups showed highest swelling compared with normal group; however, all drug-treated groups showed significant reduced swelling. Treatments with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts recovery were observed in behavioral and radiological aspects in arthritic rats.
  4,045 369 10
Where are the new medicines? The case for terrestrial microorganisms
Cedric Pearce
July-September 2011, 2(3):136-137
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85523  PMID:22171308
  4,127 274 1
Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology and research
Upendra Nagaich
July-September 2011, 2(3):135-135
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.85522  PMID:22171307
  2,394 273 -