Home  |  About JAPTR |  Editorial board  |  Search |  Ahead of print  |  Current issue  |  Archives |  Submit article  |  Instructions  |  Subscribe  |  Advertise  |  Contacts  |Reader Login
Users Online: 379   Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2010| October-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 3, 2011

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Cited Viewed PDF
Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview
Bindu M Boddupalli, Zulkar N.K Mohammed, Ravinder A Nath, David Banji
October-December 2010, 1(4):381-387
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76436  PMID:22247877
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) require increased duration of stay in GIT. Thus, mucoadhesive dosage forms are advantageous in increasing the drug plasma concentrations and also therapeutic activity. In this regard, this review covers the areas of mechanisms and theories of mucoadhesion, factors influencing the mucoadhesive devices and also various mucoadhesive dosage forms.
  203 28,936 4,272
Niosome: A future of targeted drug delivery systems
Kazi Masud Karim, Asim Sattwa Mandal, Nikhil Biswas, Arijit Guha, Sugata Chatterjee, Mamata Behera, Ketousetuo Kuotsu
October-December 2010, 1(4):374-380
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76435  PMID:22247876
Over the past several years, treatment of infectious diseases and immunisation has undergone a revolutionary shift. With the advancement of biotechnology and genetic engineering, not only a large number of disease-specific biological have been developed, but also emphasis has been made to effectively deliver these biologicals. Niosomes are vesicles composed of non-ionic surfactants, which are biodegradable, relatively nontoxic, more stable and inexpensive, an alternative to liposomes. This article reviews the current deepening and widening of interest of niosomes in many scientific disciplines and, particularly its application in medicine. This article also presents an overview of the techniques of preparation of niosome, types of niosomes, characterisation and their applications.
  184 20,196 4,008
Synthesis and biological evaluation of formazan derivatives
Gurusamy Mariappan, Rejaul Korim, Nand Madhwa Joshi, Faruk Alam, Rajib Hazarika, Deepak Kumar, Tiewlasubon Uriah
October-December 2010, 1(4):396-400
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76438  PMID:22247879
The formazan derivatives (FM1-FM5) were synthesized by the reaction of benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone with substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were then elucidated using UV, IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. All the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity at 250 μg/ml, but FM4 and FM3 did not show any inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Vibriocholera, respectively. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data were statistically significant at P<0.001 level. But none of the compounds was effective against Japanese encephalitis virus.
  37 8,241 695
Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India
Neeraj K Sethiya, Ashish Trivedi, Mayur B Patel, SH Mishra
October-December 2010, 1(4):388-395
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76437  PMID:22247878
People in Indian region often apply Shankhpushpi and other Sanskrit-based common name to Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Canscora decussata, and Clitorea ternatea. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal plant. Before the establishment of British rule, like the other books, ayurvedic treatises were also hand written. This might be one of the reasons due to which ayurveda could not stand parallel to the western medicine and an ambiguity is reflected in the interpretation of names and description of drugs found in the books like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The most widespread application of Shankhpushpi is for mental problems, but they have been considered for an array of other human maladies. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of four ethanobotanicals of Shankhpushpi. A comparative morphoanatomy of the root, stem, and leaves has been studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. Various physicochemical, morphological, histological parameters, comparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatogram of methanolic extract presented in this communication may serve the purpose of standard parameters to establish the authenticity of commercialized varieties and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from the other species. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines.
  34 16,117 2,044
Anticounterfeit packaging technologies
Ruchir Y Shah, Prajesh N Prajapati, YK Agrawal
October-December 2010, 1(4):368-373
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76434  PMID:22247875
Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.
  20 10,447 849
Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits
Roshan Patel, Naveen Mahobia, Nitin Upwar, Naheed Waseem, Hetal Talaviya, Zalak Patel
October-December 2010, 1(4):415-418
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76441  PMID:22247882
Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.
  19 6,739 780
Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation of some 4-quinazolinone derivatives based on febrifugine
Debanjan Sen, Anirban Banerjee, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh, Tapan Kumar Chatterjee
October-December 2010, 1(4):401-405
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76439  PMID:22247880
A series of 2-substituted and 2,3-substituted quinazolin -4(3H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the structure of febrifugine. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by spectral analysis. The in vivo biological activity test results indicated that those compounds exhibited antimalarial activities against Plasmodium berghei in mice, at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Compared to Chloroquine and Artemisinin, these compounds have the advantages of shorter synthetic routes and consequently are highly cost effective in nature.
  13 5,903 577
Antibacterial activity of Croton roxburghii balak. against the enteric pathogens
SK Panda, SK Dutta, AK Bastia
October-December 2010, 1(4):419-422
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76442  PMID:22247883
In this study, the antibacterial activity of crude (aqueous and alcoholic) extracts of the bark and leaf of Croton roxburghii Balak. (Euphorbiaceae) was tested against enteric pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) using the agar cup method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), time kill kinetics and synergy study. The ethanol extract exhibited a significant and broad spectrum of inhibition as compared to the aqueous extract of both the bark and leaf. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus followed by enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The diameter of inhibition zones varied from 10 to 18 mm for both aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The MIC value ranged from 356 to 625 μg/ml. This could justify the traditional use of this plant in dysentery and other infections.
  10 4,664 423
Pharmacogenetics: The future medicine
Rajiv Saini, Santosh Saini, RS Sugandha
October-December 2010, 1(4):423-424
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76443  PMID:22247884
  4 3,295 370
Detachment and recovery index: A new parameter measuring powder compressibility
October-December 2010, 1(4):406-414
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76440  PMID:22247881
This investigation introduces a simple and reliable approach to measure the compressibility of some direct compression excipients in tablet systems made from compressible components. The claim made here is that: the total reduction, ΔL T , in the thickness of a tablet batch due to compression at a confined machine settings is the integral sum of small reductions generated by the compressible components in the batch. The reduction value, ΔL E , generated by a single or a blend of excipients in a batch could be calculated and was found to correlate to its concentration, C, by the relation: ΔL E =A E.C x. The constants AE and x concern the reduction tendency, RT, of the excipient particles due to compression, and detachment and recovery index (DRI), respectively. Some physicomechanical parameters characterizing the compression behavior of an excipient in a tablet batch could be determined and were found to be functions of the determine DRI of the excipient in the batch.
  1 6,751 366
'Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research'
Upendra Nagaich
October-December 2010, 1(4):367-367
DOI:10.4103/0110-5558.76433  PMID:22247874
  - 3,849 408