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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 169-174

Potential anti-alopecia constituents from Theobroma cacao: An in silico study

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Dikdik Kurnia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM. 21, Jatinangor, West Java 453
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_329_20

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Tinea capitis is local alopecia caused by a dermatophyte infection of the scalp. Trichophyton rubrum produces the squalene epoxidase enzyme, which has a crucial role in prolonged dermatophyte infection, as well as in synthesizing fatty acids in this dermatophyte group. This study analyzes Trichophyton cacao compounds as anti-alopecia by inhibiting the squalene epoxidase enzyme formation, in silico. The structure of T. cacao compounds was prepared using the MolView Web application. The compound docked to squalene epoxidase using AutoDock Vina in PyRx 0.8, followed by PyMOL for visualization, and the Proteins Plus program to analyze the complexity. The binding affinity value of catechin, epicatechin (−8.0 kcal/mol), and anthocyanin (−7.8 kcal/mol) compounds was higher than the positive control (terbinafine, −6.7 kcal/mol). Pre-ADMET demonstrated that catechin and epicatechin had moderate Human Intestinal Absorption (66.71%), but anthocyanin was very good (100%). Caco-2 parameters for catechin and epicatechin were relatively low (<4 nm s− 1), while anthocyanin, theobromine, and terbinafine were within 4–70 nm s− 1. Plasma protein binding shows catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanin diffuse through the plasma membrane and interact with plasma proteins. The toxicity results for all compounds are mutagenic, and only terbinafine is carcinogenic. Based on the Lipinski's “Rule of Five,” compounds from T. Cacao can be given orally. Catechin and epicatechin compounds have the potential to act as anti-alopecia. These two compounds can diffuse and interact with plasma proteins so they are directly on the target when given orally.

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