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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 143-149

Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells


1 Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University; Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Research Unit and Animal Research Centre, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Research, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey
5 Green Chem Herbal Extracts and Formulations, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Devaraj Ezhilarasan
Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Research Unit and Lab Animal Centre, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_73_17

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Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB) against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25). Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.


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