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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-87  

Nanosuspension: An approach to enhance solubility of drugs

Institute of Research and Development, Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, Sector 18/A, B/H Police Bhavan, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jul-2011

Correspondence Address:
Y K Agrawal
Institute of Research and Development, Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, Sector 18/A, B/H Police Bhavan, Gandhinagar - 382 007, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.82950

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One of the major problems associated with poorly soluble drugs is very low bioavailability. The problem is even more complex for drugs like itraconazole, simvastatin, and carbamazepine which are poorly soluble in both aqueous and nonaqueous media, belonging to BCS class II as classified by biopharmaceutical classification system. Formulation as nanosuspension is an attractive and promising alternative to solve these problems. Nanosuspension consists of the pure poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion. Preparation of nanosuspension is simple and applicable to all drugs which are water insoluble. A nanosuspension not only solves the problems of poor solubility and bioavailability, but also alters the pharmacokinetics of drug and thus improves drug safety and efficacy. This review article describes the preparation methods, characterization, and applications of the nanosuspension.

Keywords: Bioavailability, colloidal dispersion, drug delivery, nanosuspension, solubility

How to cite this article:
Patel VR, Agrawal Y K. Nanosuspension: An approach to enhance solubility of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2011;2:81-7

How to cite this URL:
Patel VR, Agrawal Y K. Nanosuspension: An approach to enhance solubility of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2021 Jul 26];2:81-7. Available from: https://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2011/2/2/81/82950

   Introduction Top

A range of parameters like solubility, stability at room temperature, compatibility with solvent, excipient, and photostability play a critical role in the successful formulation of drugs. Till date, more than 40% of the new chemical entities being generated through drug discovery programs are lipophilic or poorly water-soluble compounds. [1],[2] Many formulation approaches are available to solve the problems of low solubility and low bioavailability of drugs. The conventional approaches include micronization, use of fatty solutions, use of penetration enhancer or cosolvents, surfactant dispersion method, salt formation, precipitation, etc., but still, these techniques having limited utility in solubility enhancement for poorly soluble drugs. Additional approaches are vesicular system like liposomes, dispersion of solids, emulsion and microemulsion methods, and inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins, which show beneficial effect as drug delivery system but major problems of these techniques are lack of universal applicability to all drugs. [3] Over the last decades, nanoparticle engineering has been developed and reported for pharmaceutical applications. [4] Nanotechnology can be used to solve the problems associated with various approaches described earlier. Nanotechnology is defined as the science and engineering carried out in the nanoscale that is 10−9 m. The drug microparticles/micronized drug powder is transferred to drug nanoparticles by techniques like Bottom-Up Technology and Top-Down Technology. [5] Nanosuspensions are submicron colloidal dispersions of nanosized drug particles stabilized by surfactants. [6] Nanosuspensions consist of the poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion. [7] These can be used to enhance the solubility of drugs that are poorly soluble in water as well as lipid media. As a result of increased solubility, the rate of flooding of the active compound increases and the maximum plasma level is reached faster. This approach is useful for molecules with poor solubility, poor permeability, or both, which poses a significant challenge for the formulators. The reduced particle size renders the possibility of intravenous administration of poorly soluble drugs without any blockade of the blood capillaries. The suspensions can also be lyophilized and into a solid matrix. Apart from these advantages, it also has the advantages of liquid formulations over others. [8] In the present review, we are mainly focusing on the different methods of preparation associated merits, demerits, and its pharmaceutical application as drug delivery system.

   Advantages of Nanosuspension Top

  • Enhance the solubility and bioavailability of drugs
  • Suitable for hydrophilic drugs
  • Higher drug loading can be achieved
  • Dose reduction is possible
  • Enhance the physical and chemical stability of drugs
  • Provides a passive drug targeting

   Preparation of Nanosuspension Top

For the preparation of nanosuspensions, mostly two methods namely "Bottom up technology" and "Top down technology" are used, as shown in [Figure 1]. [10] Bottom up technology is an assembling method to form nanoparticles like precipitation, microemulsion, melt emulsification method and top down technology involves the disintegration of larger particles into nanoparticles, examples of which are high-pressure homogenization and milling methods. The principles of these methods are described in detail and their merits and demerits are shown in [Table 1]. [11],[12]
Figure 1: Approaches for preparation of nanosuspension

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Table 1: Preparative techniques for nanosuspension with merits and demerits

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Precipitation Method

Precipitation method is a general method used to prepare submicron particles of poorly soluble drugs. [13],[14],[15] In this method, drug is dissolved in solvent and then solution is mixed with solvent to which drug is insoluble in the presence of surfactant. Rapid addition of solution to such solvent (generally water) leads to rapid supersaturation of drug in the solution, and formation of ultrafine amorphous or crystalline drug. This method involves nuclei formation and crystal growth which are mainly dependent on temperature. High nucleation rate and low crystal growth rate are primary requirements for preparing a stable suspension with minimum particle size. [16]

High-Pressure Homogenization

This technique involve the following three steps: First, drug powders are dispersed in a stabilizer solution to form presuspension; after that, presuspension is homogenized by high pressure homogenizer at a low pressure sometimes for premilling; and finally homogenized at a high pressure for 10 to 25 cycles until the nanosuspensions are formed with desired size. [9]

Homogenization in Aqueous Media (Dissocubes)

Dissocubes technology was developed by Muller in 1999. The instrument can be operated at pressure varying from 100 to 1 500 bars (2 800 - 21 300 psi) and up to 2 000 bars with volume capacity of 40 ml (for laboratory scale). For preparation of nanosuspension, it is essential to prepare a presuspension of the micronized drug in a surfactant solution using high-speed stirrer. According to Bernoulli's Law, the flow volume of liquid in a closed system per cross section is constant. The reduction in diameter from 3 cm to 25 μm leads to increase in dynamic pressure and decrease of static pressure below the boiling point of water at room temperature. Due to this, water starts boiling at room temperature and forms gas bubbles, which implode when the suspension leaves the gap (called cavitation) and normal air pressure is reached. The size of the drug nanocrystals that can be achieved mainly depends on factors like temperature, number of homogenization cycles, and power density of homogenizer and homogenization pressure. Preprocessing like micronization of drug and high-cost instruments increases the overall cost of dosage form. Various drugs like Amphotericin B, Ordinon, Thiomerasol, Fenofibrate, Melarsoprol, Buparvaquone, Prednisolone, Carbamazepine And Dexamethasone were prepared as nanosuspensions using this method. [5]

Homogenization in Nonaqueous Media (Nanopure)

Nanopure is suspension homogenized in water-free medium. It is "deep-freeze" homogenization where the drug suspensions in nonaqueous medium are homogenized at 0 o C or sometimes below the freezing point. Because of very high boiling point and low vapor pressure of water, oils, and fatty acids, the drop of static pressure is not enough to begin cavitation in nanopure technology. [17] Other homogenization technologies and patents on the homogenization processes are shown in [Table 2]. [18]
Table 2: Homogenization technologies and patents on the homogenization processes

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Milling Techniques

Media milling

Liversidge et al. had a patent on nanocrystal technology. [19] In this technique, drugs are subjected to media milling for nanoparticle production. Effect of impaction between the milling media and drugs gives essential energy for disintegration of the microparticulate system into nanoparticles. In this process, the chamber of milling is charged with the milling media involving drug, stabilizer, and water or suitable buffer, which is rotated at a very high shear rate to generate suspension. Residues left behind in the finished product is a major problem of this method. [20]

Dry cogrinding

Since many years, nanosuspensions are prepared through wet grinding processes by using pearl ball mill. Nowadays, nanosuspensions can be prepared by dry milling methods. Stable nanosuspensions are prepared by using dry grinding of poorly soluble drug with soluble polymers and copolymers after dispersing in liquid medium. Itoh et al. have described the colloidal particles formation of many poorly water-soluble drugs like nifedipine, griseofulvin, and glibenclamide with sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilizer. [21],[22],[23]

Lipid emulsion/microemulsion template

Nanosuspensions are also obtained by just diluting the emulsion, formed by using a partially water-miscible solvent as the dispersed phase. The emulsion technique is applicable for drugs which are either partially water miscible or soluble in volatile organic solvents. Additionally, microemulsion templates can also produce nanosuspensions. Microemulsions are dispersions of two immiscible liquids like water and oil and stabilized thermodynamically by surfactant or cosurfactant. The drug is either loaded into preformed or internal phase of microemulsion and can be saturated by intimate mixing of drugs. [20] Griseofulvin nanosuspension is prepared by the microemulsion technique by using water, butyl lactate, lecithin, and the sodium salt of taurodeoxycholate. [24]

Microprecipitation - High-pressure homogenization (Nanoedge)

Nanoedge is a combination of microprecipitation and high-pressure homogenization techniques. Method includes precipitation of friable materials followed by fragmentation under high shear and/or thermal energy. [25],[26] The preparation method of nanoedge is shown in [Figure 2]. [27]
Figure 2: Method for preparation of nanoedge

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Melt emulsification method

Solid lipid nanoparticles are mainly prepared by melt emulsification method. Kipp and co workers firstly prepare nanosuspensions of ibuprofen by using melt emulsification method. It is a four-step procedure. Drug is first added to aqueous solution having stabilizer. The solution is heated at temperature higher than the melting point of the drug and then homogenized by high-speed homogenizer for the formation of emulsion. The temperature is maintained above the melting point of the drug during overall process. Finally, the emulsion is cooled to precipitate the particles. The particle size of nanosuspension mainly depends on parameters like drug concentration, concentration and type of stabilizers used, cooling temperature, and homogenization process. [28]

Nanojet technology

This technique is also called opposite stream technology, uses a chamber where a stream of suspension is divided into two or more parts. Both streams are colloid with each other at high pressure. The high shear force produced during the process results in particle size reduction. Dearns had prepared nanosuspensions of atovaquone using the microfluidization process. The major disadvantage of this technique is the high number of passes through the microfluidizer and that the product obtained contains a relatively larger fraction of microparticles. [29]

Supercritical fluid methods

Various methods like rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) process, supercritical antisolvent process, and precipitation with compressed antisolvent (PCA) process are used to produce nanoparticles. In RESS technique, drug solution is expanded through a nozzle into supercritical fluid, resulting in precipitation of the drug as fine particles by loss of solvent power of the supercritical fluid. By using RESS method, Young et al. prepared cyclosporine nanoparticles having diameter of 400 to 700 nm. In the PCA method, the drug solution is atomized into the CO 2 compressed chamber. As the removal of solvent occurs, the solution gets supersaturated and finally precipitation occurs. In supercritical antisolvent process, drug solution is injected into the supercritical fluid and the solvent gets extracted as well as the drug solution becomes supersaturated. [30]

   Characterization Techniques Top

The particle size, particle size distribution, and zeta potential affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of nanodrug delivery systems as well as dissolution performance is also altered by solid state of nanoparticles. Thus, characterization of nanoparticles plays a great role in forecasting in vitro and in vivo performance of nanodrug delivery systems. In vivo pharmacokinetic performance and biological function of nanosuspension strongly depends on its particle size and distribution, particle charge (zeta potential), crystalline state, and particle morphology.

Mean Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution

The mean particle size and particle size distribution affects saturation solubility, dissolution rate, physical stability, and in vivo performance of nanosuspensions. [9] The particle size distribution and its range named polydispersity index (PI) can be determined by laser diffraction (LD), photon correlation spectroscopy, microscope, and coulter counter. [31] PI gives the physical stability of nanosuspensions and should be as lower as possible for the long-time stability of nanosuspensions. A PI value of 0.1 to 0.25 shows a fairly narrow size distribution, and PI value more than 0.5 indicates a very broad distribution. [32] LD can detect and quantify the drug microparticles during the production process. It also gives a volume size distribution and can be used to measure particles ranging from 0.05 up to 2 000 μm. [33] The coulter counter gives the absolute number of particles per volume for the different size classes. It is more efficient and suitable than LD to quantify the contamination of nanosuspensions. [30]

Crystalline State and Particle Morphology

Polymorphic or morphological changes of nanosized particles can be checked by assessing the crystalline state and particle morphology. [30] As nanosuspension requires high-pressure homogenization, change in crystalline structure of formulation occurs which may be converted to either amorphous or other polymorphic forms. [31] Alteration in the solid state of the drug particles and the extent of the amorphous portion is determined by X-ray diffraction analysis [34] and supplemented by differential scanning calorimetry analysis. [30]

Surface Charge (Zeta Potential)

Surface charge properties of the nanosuspensions are studied through zeta potential. The value of particle surface charge indicates the stability of nanosuspensions at the macroscopic level. A minimum zeta potential of ±30 mV is required for electrostatically stabilized nanosuspensions [35],[36] and a minimum of ±20 mV for steric stabilization. [37] The zeta potential values are commonly calculated by determining the particle's electrophoretic mobility and then converting the electrophoretic mobility to the zeta potential. [38] Electroacoustic technique is also used for the determination of the zeta potential in the areas of material sciences. [39]

   Pharmaceutical Application of Nanosuspension Top

By using postproduction processing, nanosuspensions are prepared into various dosage forms. Nanosuspension increases dissolution rate and absorption of drug due to smaller particle size and larger surface area. The available marketed drugs in the form of nanosuspensions along with their routes of administration are mentioned in [Table 3]. [12]
Table 3: Available marketed drugs in the form of nanosuspension with their route of administration

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Oral Drug Delivery

Poor solubility, incomplete dissolution, and insufficient efficacy are the major problem of oral drug administration. Due to smaller particle size and much larger surface to volume ratio, oral nanosuspensions are specially used to increase the absorption rate and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. [40] In case of azithromycin nanosuspensions, more than 65% drug was found to be dissolved in 5 hours as compared with 20% of micronized drugs. [41] The nanosuspension have advantages like improved oral absorption, dose proportionality, and low intersubject variability. By using standard manufacturing techniques, drug nanosuspensions can be simply incorporated into various dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and fast melts. The nanosuspension of Ketoprofen was successfully incorporated into pellets for the sustained release of drug over the period of 24 hours. [42]

Parental Drug Delivery

The present approaches for parental delivery include micellar solutions, salt formation, solubilization using cosolvents, cyclodextrin complexation, and more recently vesicular systems such as liposomes and niosomes. But these methods have limitations like solubilization capacity, parental acceptability, high manufacturing cost, etc. To solve the above problems, the nanosuspension technology is used. Nanosuspensions are administered through various parental routes such as intraarticular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, etc. Additionally, nanosuspensions increase the efficacy of parenterally administered drugs. Paclitaxel nanosuspension was reported to have their superiority in reducing the median tumor burden. [43] Clofazimine nanosuspension showed an improvement in stability as well as efficacy above the liposomal clofazimine in Mycobacterium avium-infected female mice. [44] Rainbow et al. showed that intravenous nanosuspension of itraconazole enhanced efficacy of antifungal activity in rats relative to the solution formulation. [45]

Pulmonary Drug Delivery

For pulmonary delivery, nanosuspensions can be nebulized through mechanical or ultrasonic nebulizers. Due to the presence of many small particles, all aerosol droplets contain drug nanoparticles. Budesonide corticosteroid has been successfully prepared in the form of nanosuspension for pulmonary delivery. [46] Aqueous suspensions of the drug can be easily nebulized and given by pulmonary route as the particle size is very small. Different types of nebulizers are available for the administration of liquid formulations. Some of the drugs successfully tried with pulmonary route are budesonide, ketotifen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, nifedipine, itraconazole, interleukin-2, p53 gene, leuprolide, doxorubicin, etc. [47]

Ocular Drug Delivery

Nanosuspensions are used in ocular delivery of the drugs for sustained release. Liang and co-workers prepared cloricromene nanosuspension for ocular delivery using Eudragit. Experiment showed higher availability of drug in aqueous humor of rabbit eye. Thus, nanosuspension formulation offers a promising way of improving the shelf-life and bioavailability of drug after ophthalmic application. [37]

Targeted Drug Delivery

Nanosuspensions are suitable for targeting particular organs because of their surface properties. Along with this, it is easy to alter in vivo behavior by changing the stabilizer. The drug will be taken up by the mononuclear phagocytic system which allows region-specific delivery. This can be used for targeting antifungal, antimycobacterial, or antileishmanial drugs to macrophages if the pathogens persist intracellularly. [48] Kayser formulated an aphidicolin nanosuspension that improved the drug targeting to macrophages which were Leishmania infected. He stated that the drug in the form of nanosuspension had EC 50 of 0.003 μg/ml, whereas the conventional form had 0.16 μg/ml. [49] Scholer et al. described an enhanced drug targeting to brain in the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis using an atovaquone nanosuspension. [50]

   Conclusion Top

Nanosuspensions are distinctive and commercially feasible approach to solve the problems of hydrophobic drug such as poor solubility and poor bioavailability. For large-scale production of nanosuspensions, media milling and high-pressure homogenization technology have been successfully used. Striking characteristics, like improvement of dissolution velocity, increased saturation solubility, improved bioadhesivity, versatility in surface modification, and ease of postproduction processing, have widened the applications of nanosuspensions for various routes of administration. The applications of nanosuspensions in oral and parental routes have been very well established, although applications in pulmonary and ocular delivery have to be evaluated. However, their delivery through buccal, nasal, and topical delivery is yet to be done.

   References Top

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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5 Characterisation of selenium and tellurium nanoparticles produced by Aureobasidium pullulans using a multi-method approach.
Kenneth C Nwoko,Xinjin Liang,Magali AMJ Perez,Eva Krupp,Geoffrey Michael Gadd,Jörg Feldmann
Journal of Chromatography A. 2021; : 462022
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6 Investigation on Surface interaction between Graphene Nanobuds and Cerium(III) via Fluorescence excimer, Theoretical, Real water sample, and Bioimaging studies
V.R. Pavithra,T. Daniel Thangadurai,G. Manonmani,K. Senthilkumar,D. Nataraj,J. Jiya,K. Nandakumar,S. Thomas
Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2021; : 124453
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7 Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles and extracts of Syzygium cumini flowers and seeds: periodontal, cariogenic and opportunistic pathogens
Wagner Luís de Carvalho Bernardo,Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo,Caroline Coradi Tonon,Jeferson Júnior da Silva,Fernando Moraes Cruz,Adriano Luis Martins,José Francisco Höfling,Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio
Archives of Oral Biology. 2021; : 105101
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8 Effects of polysaccharide charge density on the structure and stability of carboxymethylcellulose-casein nanocomplexes at pH 4.5 prepared with and without a pH-cycle
Nan Li,Qixin Zhong
Food Hydrocolloids. 2021; : 106718
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Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi. 2021; : 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 AGRO-WASTE mediated biopolymer for production of biogenic nano iron oxide with superparamagnetic power and antioxidant strength
Rajiv Periakaruppan,Jianjie Li,Huiling Mei,Ying Yu,Shunkai Hu,Xuan Chen,Xinghui Li,Guiyi Guo
Journal of Cleaner Production. 2021; : 127512
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11 Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles of Targeted Drug Delivery System in Breast Cancer Treatment
Yedi Herdiana,Nasrul Wathoni,Shaharum Shamsuddin,I Made Joni,Muchtaridi Muchtaridi
Polymers. 2021; 13(11): 1717
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12 Utilization of tea resources with the production of superparamagnetic biogenic iron oxide nanoparticles and an assessment of their antioxidant activities
Rajiv Periakaruppan,Xuan Chen,Kuberan Thangaraj,Anburaj Jeyaraj,Hoang Ha Nguyen,Ying Yu,Shunkai Hu,Li Lu,Xinghui Li
Journal of Cleaner Production. 2021; 278: 123962
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13 Light-responsive polymeric nanoparticles based on a novel nitropiperonal based polyester as drug delivery systems for photosensitizers in PDT
Timo Schoppa,Dimitri Jung,Tarik Rust,Dennis Mulac,Dirk Kuckling,Klaus Langer
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2021; 597: 120326
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14 Preparation and physicochemical stability of hemp seed oil liposomes
Yanguo Shi,Wen Wang,Xiuqing Zhu,Bing Wang,Yue Hao,Liqi Wang,Dianyu Yu,Walid Elfalleh
Industrial Crops and Products. 2021; 162: 113283
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15 Synthesis of Poly(Malic Acid) Derivatives End-Functionalized with Peptides and Preparation of Biocompatible Nanoparticles to Target Hepatoma Cells
Clarisse Brossard,Manuel Vlach,Elise Vène,Catherine Ribault,Vincent Dorcet,Nicolas Noiret,Pascal Loyer,Nicolas Lepareur,Sandrine Cammas-Marion
Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(4): 958
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16 Application of Fundamental Techniques for Physicochemical Characterizations to Understand Post-Formulation Performance of Pharmaceutical Nanocrystalline Materials
Bwalya A. Witika,Marique Aucamp,Larry L. Mweetwa,Pedzisai A. Makoni
Crystals. 2021; 11(3): 310
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17 Nanotechnology based solutions for anti-leishmanial impediments: a detailed insight
Humzah Jamshaid,Fakhar ud Din,Gul Majid Khan
Journal of Nanobiotechnology. 2021; 19(1)
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18 Effect of pH on the formation of U(VI) colloidal particles in a natural groundwater
Yanlin Shi,Wanqiang Zhou,Jingyi Wang,Dongfan Xian,Zhaoyi Tan,Liang Du,Xiaolong Li,Duoqiang Pan,Zongyuan Chen,Wangsuo Wu,Chunli Liu
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2021;
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19 Mesoporous Silica Particles as Drug Delivery Systems—The State of the Art in Loading Methods and the Recent Progress in Analytical Techniques for Monitoring These Processes
Katarzyna Trzeciak,Agata Chotera-Ouda,Irena I. Bak-Sypien,Marek J. Potrzebowski
Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(7): 950
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20 Redispersible Nanosuspensions as a Plausible Oral Delivery System for Curcumin
Nancy M. Elbaz,Lee M. Tatham,Andrew Owen,Steve Rannard,Tom O. McDonald
Food Hydrocolloids. 2021; : 107005
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21 Development of a BCS Class II Drug Microemulsion for Oral Delivery: Design, Optimization, and Evaluation
Marwa Tlijani,Mohamed Ali Lassoued,Badr Bahloul,Souad Sfar,Hassan Karimi-Maleh
Journal of Nanomaterials. 2021; 2021: 1
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22 Development of Novel Bead Milling Technology with Less Metal Contamination by pH Optimization of the Suspension Medium
Hironori Tanaka,Yuya Ochii,Yasushi Moroto,Tetsuharu Ibaraki,Ken-ichi Ogawara
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2021; 69(1): 81
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23 Comparative analysis of physical and functional properties of cellulose nanofibers isolated from alkaline pre-treated wheat straw in optimized hydrochloric acid and enzymatic processes
Regan Ceaser,Annie F.A. Chimphango
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2021; 171: 331
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24 Comparative in vitro evaluation of glimepiride containing nanosuspension drug delivery system developed by different techniques
Sujit Bose,Pooja Sharma,Vijay Mishra,Swati Patial,Gaurav K. Saraogi,Murtaza M. Tambuwala,Kamal Dua
Journal of Molecular Structure. 2021; : 129927
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25 Two Temperatures Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv. Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts: Characterization and Applications
Nneka Augustina Akwu,Yougasphree Naidoo,Moganavelli Singh,Nirasha Nundkumar,Aliscia Daniels,Johnson Lin
BioNanoScience. 2021;
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26 Colloidal Particles for Pickering Emulsion Stabilization Prepared via Antisolvent Precipitation of Lignin-Rich Cocoa Shell Extract
Holly Cuthill,Carole Elleman,Thomas Curwen,Bettina Wolf
Foods. 2021; 10(2): 371
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27 Nanotechnological Manipulation of Nutraceuticals and Phytochemicals for Healthy Purposes: Established Advantages vs. Still Undefined Risks
Silvana Alfei,Anna Maria Schito,Guendalina Zuccari
Polymers. 2021; 13(14): 2262
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28 Application of starch nanoparticles as a stabilizer for Pickering emulsions: effect of environmental factors and approach for enhancing its storage stability
Eun Byul Ko,Jong-Yea Kim
Food Hydrocolloids. 2021; : 106984
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29 The influence of ergosterol on the action of the hop oil and its major terpenes on model fungi membranes. Towards understanding the mechanism of action of phytocompounds for food and plant protection
Karolina Polec,Karolina Olechowska,Amanda Klejdysz,Michal Dymek,Rafal Rachwalik,Elzbieta Sikora,Katarzyna Hac-Wydro
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 2021; : 105092
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30 Chitosan, Polyethylene Glycol and Polyvinyl Alcohol Modified MgFe2O4 Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles in Doxorubicin Delivery: A Comparative Study In Vitro
Deevak Ramnandan,Seipati Mokhosi,Aliscia Daniels,Moganavelli Singh
Molecules. 2021; 26(13): 3893
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31 Application of ultrasonics for nanosizing drugs and drug formulations
Ioannis Partheniadis,Rumit R. Shah,Ioannis Nikolakakis
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. 2021; : 1
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32 Nanosuspension of flavonoid-rich fraction from Psidium guajava Linn for improved type 2-diabetes potential
Praveen Kumar Gaur
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2021; : 102358
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33 An in-depth analysis of novel combinatorial drug therapy via nanocarriers against HIV/AIDS infection and their clinical perspectives: A systematic review
Abdul Muheem,Sanjula Baboota,Javed Ali
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 2021;
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34 Synergistic antioxidant capacities of vanillin and chitosan nanoparticles against reactive oxygen species, hepatotoxicity, and genotoxicity induced by aging in male Wistar rats
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Human & Experimental Toxicology. 2021; 40(1): 183
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35 Liposomes containing 3-arylamino-nor-ß-lapachone derivative: development, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic activity
Luciana V. Rebouças,Fátima C.E. Oliveira,Daniel P. Pinheiro,Maria Francilene S. Silva,Vanessa Pinheiro G. Ferreira,Roberto Nicolete,Augusto C.A. Oliveira,Renata G. Almeida,Eufrânio N. da Silva Júnior,Marcia S. Rizzo,Marcília P. Costa,Guilherme Zocolo,Fábio O.S. Ribeiro,Durcilene A. da Silva,Claudia Pessoa
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36 Solubility and Dissolution Study of Prochlorperazine Maleate Nanoparticle Prepared by Design of Experiment
Mihir Raval,Hina L. Bagada
BioNanoScience. 2021;
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37 Protective Effect of Natural Products against Huntington’s Disease: An Overview of Scientific Evidence and Understanding Their Mechanism of Action
Pei Teng Lum,Mahendran Sekar,Siew Hua Gan,Srinivasa Reddy Bonam,Mohd. Farooq Shaikh
ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2021;
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38 Exploring green and industrially scalable MICROFLUIDIZER™ technology for DEVELOPMENT of barium sulphate nanosuspension for ENHANCED contrasting
Susmit Mhatre,Shivraj Naik,Vandana Patravale
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2021; : 102567
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39 Emerging role of nanosuspensions in drug delivery systems
Shery Jacob,Anroop B. Nair,Jigar Shah
Biomaterials Research. 2020; 24(1)
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40 An evaluation of Acacia mearnsii tannin as an aluminum corrosion inhibitor in acid, alkaline, and neutral media
Silvia R. S. Rodrigues,Viviane Dalmoro,João H. Z. Santos
Materials and Corrosion. 2020;
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41 Dextran-Thyme Magnesium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Composite Antimicrobial Coatings
Simona Liliana Iconaru,Mihai Valentin Predoi,Mikael Motelica-Heino,Daniela Predoi,Nicolas Buton,Christelle Megier,George E. Stan
Coatings. 2020; 10(1): 57
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42 Synthesis of PDA-Mediated Magnetic Bimetallic Nanozyme and Its Application in Immunochromatographic Assay
Xiaocui Lai,Ganggang Zhang,Lifeng Zeng,Xiaoyue Xiao,Juan Peng,Ping Guo,Wei Zhang,Weihua Lai
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2020;
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43 Anti-Metastatic Effects of Plant Sap-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in a 3D Microfluidic Cancer Metastasis Model
Kimin Kim,Jik-Han Jung,Hye Ju Yoo,Jae-Kyung Hyun,Ji-Ho Park,Dokyun Na,Ju Hun Yeon
Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2020; 11(3): 49
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44 Fast disintegrating tablet of Doxazosin Mesylate nanosuspension: Preparation and characterization
Al Zahraa G. Al Ashmawy,Noura G. Eissa,Hanan M. El Nahas,Gehan F. Balata
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; : 102210
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45 Development of Polymer and Surfactant Based Naringenin Nanosuspension for Improvement of Stability, Antioxidant, and Antitumour Activity
Shadab Md,Nabil A. Alhakamy,Sohail Akhter,Zuhier A. Y. Awan,Hibah M. Aldawsari,Waleed S. Alharbi,Anzarul Haque,Hira Choudhury,Ponnurengam Malliappan Sivakumar
Journal of Chemistry. 2020; 2020: 1
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46 Multitherapy magnetic theranostic: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of their performance
María Gabriela Montiel Schneider,María Florencia Favatela,Guillermo Arturo Muñoz Medina,Marcela Fernandez van Raap,Verónica Leticia Lassalle
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2020; : 111460
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47 Study of homogenization on media milling time in preparation of irbesartan nanosuspension and optimization using design of experiments (DoE)
Chetan Borkhataria,Dhavalkumar Patel,Swati Bhagora,Nilesh Patel,Kalpesh Patel,Ravi Manek
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 6(1)
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48 Molecular Distribution of Indomethacin: Impact on the Precipitation of Glassy Curcumin pH-Responsive Nanoparticles with Enhanced Solubility
Kajal Sharma,Bidisa Das,Prem Felix Siril
Crystal Growth & Design. 2020;
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49 Effect of UV and Gamma Irradiation Sterilization Processes in the Properties of Different Polymeric Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications
Y. S. Tapia-Guerrero,M. L. Del Prado-Audelo,F. V. Borbolla-Jiménez,D. M. Giraldo Gomez,I. García-Aguirre,C. A. Colín-Castro,J. A. Morales-González,G. Leyva-Gómez,J. J. Magaña
Materials. 2020; 13(5): 1090
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50 Enhanced Anti-Bacterial Activity of Non-Antibacterial Drug Candesartan Cilexetil by Delivery through Polymeric Micelles
Faheem Kareem,Rubina Abdul-Karim,Rukesh Maharjan,Muhammad Raza Shah,Shabana U. Simjee,Khalid M. Khan,Muhammad Imran Malik
ChemistrySelect. 2020; 5(12): 3605
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51 Role of micellar interface in the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles formulated by reverse micellar method
M. Soledad Orellano,Gabriel S. Longo,Carina Porporatto,N. Mariano Correa,R. Darío Falcone
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2020; : 124876
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52 Biological synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Pometia pinnata and Diospyros discolor Fruits
W Handayani,I Nolia,R M Sundari,C Imawan
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020; 457: 012042
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53 Screening of stabilizing agents to optimize flurbiprofen nanosuspensions using experimental design
Ayse Nur Oktay,Sibel Ilbasmis-Tamer,Alptug Karakucuk,Nevin Celebi
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; : 101690
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54 Bile acid transporter-mediated oral drug delivery
Feiyang Deng,You Han Bae
Journal of Controlled Release. 2020; 327: 100
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55 Polymer-Coated Hydroxyapatite Nanocarrier for Double-Stranded RNA Delivery
Zeinah Elhaj Baddar,Dhandapani Gurusamy,Jérôme Laisney,Priyanka Tripathi,Subba R. Palli,Jason M. Unrine
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2020;
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56 Strategy to inhibit effective differentiation of RANKL-induced osteoclasts using vitamin D-conjugated gold nanoparticles
Haram Nah,Donghyun Lee,Jae Seo Lee,Sang Jin Lee,Dong Nyoung Heo,Yeon-Hee Lee,Jae Beum Bang,Yu-Shik Hwang,Ho-Jin Moon,Il Keun Kwon
Applied Surface Science. 2020; 527: 146765
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57 Ultra-sensitive detection of commercial vitamin B9 and B12 by graphene nanobuds through inner filter effect
Pavithra V. Ravi,T. Daniel Thangadurai,D. Nataraj
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2020; 400: 112691
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58 Self-dispersible nanocrystals of azoxystrobin and cyproconazole with increased efficacy against soilborne fungal pathogens isolated from peanut crops
Boris X. Camiletti,Nahuel M. Camacho,Alejandro J. Paredes,Daniel A. Allemandi,Santiago D. Palma,Nelson R. Grosso
Powder Technology. 2020;
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59 Serratiopeptidase: Insights into the therapeutic applications
Swati B. Jadhav,Neha Shah,Ankit Rathi,Vic Rathi,Abhijit Rathi
Biotechnology Reports. 2020; 28: e00544
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60 Synthesis of Biogenic Gold Nanoparticles from Terminalia mantaly Extracts and the Evaluation of Their In Vitro Cytotoxic Effects in Cancer Cells
Michele S. Majoumouo,Jyoti R. Sharma,Nicole R. S. Sibuyi,Marius B. Tincho,Fabrice F. Boyom,Mervin Meyer
Molecules. 2020; 25(19): 4469
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61 Intracellular protein kinase CK2 inhibition by ferulic acid-based trimodal nanodevice
Sofia Zanin,Simone Molinari,Giorgio Cozza,Massimiliano Magro,Giorgio Fedele,Fabio Vianello,Andrea Venerando
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020;
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62 Formulation development and characterization of Lumefantrine nanosuspension for enhanced antimalarial activity
Ripalkumar Shah,Tejal Soni,Unnati Shah,B. N. Suhagia,M. N. Patel,Tejas Patel,Gamal A. Gabr,Bapi Gorain,Prashant Kesharwani
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. 2020; : 1
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63 Formulation Stability of Amphiphilic Poly(?-Glutamic Acid) Nanoparticle and Evaluation of Cardiotoxicity of NPs With Human iPSC-Derived 3D-Cardiomyocyte Tissues
Mayumi Ikeda,Takami Akagi,Masao Nagao,Mitsuru Akashi
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;
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64 Clotrimazole nanosuspensions-loaded hyaluronic acid-catechol/polyvinyl alcohol mucoadhesive films for oral candidiasis treatment
Chaiyakarn Pornpitchanarong,Theerasak Rojanarata,Praneet Opanasopit,Tanasait Ngawhirunpat,Prasopchai Patrojanasophon
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; 60: 101927
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65 Modulating chitosan-PLGA nanoparticle properties to design a co-delivery platform for glioblastoma therapy intended for nose-to-brain route
Natália N. Ferreira,Sara Granja,Fernanda I. Boni,Fabíola G. Prezotti,Leonardo M. B. Ferreira,Beatriz S. F. Cury,Rui M. Reis,Fátima Baltazar,Maria Palmira D. Gremião
Drug Delivery and Translational Research. 2020;
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Recent Advances in Oral Nano-Antibiotics for Bacterial Infection Therapy

Ze-Liang Wu,Jun Zhao,Rong Xu
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2020; Volume 15: 9587
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67 Toxicity evaluation of nanocrystalline silver-impregnated coated dressing on the life cycle of worm Caenorhabditis elegans
A. Ayech,M.E. Josende,J. Ventura-Lima,C. Ruas,M.A. Gelesky,A. Ale,J. Cazenave,J.M. Galdopórpora,M.F. Desimone,M. Duarte,P. Halicki,D. Ramos,L.M. Carvalho,G.C. Leal,J.M. Monserrat
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2020; 197: 110570
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68 Biomimetic graphene oxide-cationic multi-shaped gold nanoparticle-hemin hybrid nanozyme: Tuning enhanced catalytic activity for the rapid colorimetric apta-biosensing of amphetamine-type stimulants
Oluwasesan Adegoke,Svetlana Zolotovskaya,Amin Abdolvand,Niamh Nic Daeid
Talanta. 2020; 216: 120990
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69 Methods to improve the solubility of therapeutical natural products: a review
Harsha Jain,Naveen Chella
Environmental Chemistry Letters. 2020;
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70 Preparation and in vitro / in vivo evaluation of flurbiprofen nanosuspension-based gel for dermal application
Ayse Nur Oktay,Sibel Ilbasmis-Tamer,Sevtap Han,Orhan Uludag,Nevin Celebi
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 155: 105548
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71 Self-cleaning and air purification performance of Portland cement paste with low dosages of nanodispersed TiO2 coatings
Zixiao Wang,Florent Gauvin,Pan Feng,H.J.H. Brouwers,Qingliang Yu
Construction and Building Materials. 2020; 263: 120558
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72 Formulation of a responsive in vitro digestion wall material, sensory and market analyses for chia seed oil capsules
Juan Sebastián Amaya Cano,Santiago Segura Pacheco,Felipe Salcedo Galán,Isabella Arenas Bustos,Camila Rincón Durán,María Hernández Carrión
Journal of Food Engineering. 2020; : 110460
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73 Development of lipid nanoparticles containing the xanthone LEM2 for topical treatment of melanoma
Rafaela Malta,Joana B. Loureiro,Paulo Costa,Emília Sousa,Madalena Pinto,Lucília Saraiva,M. Helena Amaral
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; : 102226
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74 A novel study on curcumin metal complexes: solubility improvement, bioactivity, and trial burn wound treatment in rats
Quang Hieu Tran,Thanh Thao Doan
New Journal of Chemistry. 2020; 44(30): 13036
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75 Enhancement of Curcumin Solubility Using a Novel Solubilizing Polymer Soluplus®
F. Al-Akayleh,I. Al-Naji,S. Adwan,M. Al-Remawi,M. Shubair
Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation. 2020;
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76 Combining Two Antitubercular Drugs, Clofazimine and 4-Aminosalicylic Acid, in Order to Improve Clofazimine Aqueous Solubility and 4-Aminosalicylic Acid Thermal Stability
Laurie Bodart,Amélie Derlet,Xavier Buol,Tom Leyssens,Nikolay Tumanov,Johan Wouters
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;
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77 Improving Glycerol Photoreforming Hydrogen Production Over Ag2O-TiO2 Catalysts by Enhanced Colloidal Dispersion Stability
Zhi Yang,Weilin Zhong,Ying Chen,Chao Wang,Songping Mo,Jingtao Zhang,Riyang Shu,Qingbin Song
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2020; 8
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78 Effects of the chemical and physical reaction conditions on the formation of nanocomposites made of starch and stearic acid
Hye-Young Shin,Jin-Gyeong Ma,Jong-Yea Kim
Carbohydrate Polymers. 2020; : 116066
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79 Biotechnological applications of nanostructured hybrids of polyamine carbon quantum dots and iron oxide nanoparticles
A. Venerando,M. Magro,D. Baratella,J. Ugolotti,S. Zanin,O. Malina,R. Zboril,H. Lin,F. Vianello
Amino Acids. 2020; 52(2): 301
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80 Nanotechnology as a Tool to Overcome the Bariatric Surgery Malabsorption
Osaid Almeanazel,Fars Alanazi,Ibrahim Alsarra,Doaa Alshora,Faiyaz Shakeel,Ahmad Almnaizel,Mohammed Alahmed,Ehab Fouad
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2020;
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81 Combustion Characteristics of Suspended Hydrocarbon Fuel Droplets with Various Nanoenergetic Additives
John W. Bennewitz,Alireza Badakhshan,Douglas G. Talley
Combustion Science and Technology. 2020; : 1
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82 Preparation of Terpenoid-Invasomes with Selective Activity against S. aureus and Characterization by Cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy
Bernhard P. Kaltschmidt,Inga Ennen,Johannes F. W. Greiner,Robin Dietsch,Anant Patel,Barbara Kaltschmidt,Christian Kaltschmidt,Andreas Hütten
Biomedicines. 2020; 8(5): 105
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83 Meloxicam Carrier Systems Having Enhanced Release and Aqueous Wettability Prepared Using Micro-suspensions in Different Liquid Media
Nikita Marinko,Petr Zámostný
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2020; 21(5)
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84 Nano-immobilized flumequine with preserved antibacterial efficacy
Martina Bortoletti,Simone Molinari,Luca Fasolato,Juri Ugolotti,Roberta Tolosi,Andrea Venerando,Giuseppe Radaelli,Daniela Bertotto,Marco De Liguoro,Gabriella Salviulo,Radek Zboril,Fabio Vianello,Massimiliano Magro
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2020; 191: 111019
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85 Nasal delivery of nanosuspension-based mucoadhesive formulation with improved bioavailability of loratadine: Preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation
Areen Alshweiat,IIdikó Csóka,Ferenc Tömösi,Tamás Janáky,Anita Kovács,Róbert Gáspár,Anita Sztojkov-Ivanov,Eszter Ducza,Árpád Márki,Piroska Szabó-Révész,Rita Ambrus
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2020; : 119166
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86 Folate receptor alpha targeted delivery of artemether to breast cancer cells with folate-decorated human serum albumin nanoparticles
Asiye Akbarian,Masoumeh Ebtekar,Nafiseh Pakravan,Zuhair Mohammad Hassan
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020;
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87 Sonocrystallization: Monitoring and controlling crystallization using ultrasound
Rupanjali Prasad,Sameer V. Dalvi
Chemical Engineering Science. 2020; : 115911
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88 Comparative proteomic analysis of serum from nonhuman primates administered BIO 300: a promising radiation countermeasure
Michael Girgis,Yaoxiang Li,Junfeng Ma,Miloslav Sanda,Stephen Y. Wise,Oluseyi O. Fatanmi,Michael D. Kaytor,Amrita K. Cheema,Vijay K. Singh
Scientific Reports. 2020; 10(1)
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89 A novel method for in situ encapsulation of curcumin in magnetite-silica core-shell nanocomposites: A multifunctional platform for drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia therapy
Mahsa Asgari,Taghi Miri,Meysam Soleymani,Aboulfazl Barati
Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2020; : 114731
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90 Electrochemical DNA detection of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 using PbS quantum dot labelling
Duy Ba Ngo,Thanyarat Chaibun,Lee Su Yin,Benchaporn Lertanantawong,Werasak Surareungchai
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2020;
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91 Babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart) nanoparticle-based biosensors for indirect sulfite detection in industrial juices
Ana Siqueira Siqueira do Nascimento Marreiro Teixeira,Paulo Ronaldo Sousa Teixeira,Emanuel Airton de Oliveira Farias,Brandon Ferraz e Sousa,Kátia Bonfim de Leite Moura Sérvulo,Durcilene Alves da Silva,Carla Eiras
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2020;
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92 Effects of preheat treatments on the composition, rheological properties, and physical stability of soybean oil bodies
Liwei Fu,Zhiyong He,Maomao Zeng,Fang Qin,Jie Chen
Journal of Food Science. 2020;
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93 Electrocatalytic nanostructured ferric tannate as platform for enzyme conjugation: Electrochemical determination of phenolic compounds
Massimiliano Magro,Davide Baratella,Veronica Colò,Francesca Vallese,Carlo Nicoletto,Silvia Santagata,Paolo Sambo,Simone Molinari,Gabriella Salviulo,Andrea Venerando,Caroline R. Basso,Valber A. Pedrosa,Fabio Vianello
Bioelectrochemistry. 2020; 132: 107418
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94 Dispersion state phase diagram of citrate-coated metallic nanoparticles in saline solutions
Sebastian Franco-Ulloa,Giuseppina Tatulli,Sigbjørn Løland Bore,Mauro Moglianetti,Pier Paolo Pompa,Michele Cascella,Marco De Vivo
Nature Communications. 2020; 11(1)
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95 Probing in vitro Release Kinetics of Long-Acting Injectable Nanosuspensions via Flow-NMR Spectroscopy
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Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2020;
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96 Kaempferia parviflora Nanosuspension Formulation for Scalability and Improvement of Dissolution Profiles and Intestinal Absorption
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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2020; 21(2)
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97 Multiple linear regression applied to predicting droplet size of complex perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for biomedical applications
Eric Lambert,Jelena M. Janjic
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology. 2019; : 1
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98 Protective effect of surface-modified berberine nanoparticles against LPS-induced neurodegenerative changes: a preclinical study
Salma A. Soudi,Mohamed I. Nounou,Salah A. Sheweita,Doaa A. Ghareeb,Layla K. Younis,Labiba K. El-Khordagui
Drug Delivery and Translational Research. 2019;
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99 Development of nanodispersion-based sildenafil metered-dose inhalers stabilized by poloxamer 188: a potential candidate for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension
Charisopon Chunhachaichana,Rutthapol Sritharadol,Somchai Sawatdee,Paul Wan Sia Heng,Teerapol Srichana
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology. 2019; : 1
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100 Development of methotrexate loaded fucoidan/chitosan nanoparticles with anti-inflammatory potential and enhanced skin permeation
Ana Isabel Barbosa,Sofia A. Costa Lima,Salette Reis
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019; 124: 1115
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101 Moringa oleifera leaf extract–loaded phytophospholipid complex for potential application as wound dressing
Ai-Wei Lim,Pei-Yuen Ng,Norman Chieng,Shiow-Fern Ng
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2019; : 101329
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102 Advances in the Study of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle: New Insights into Anti-amyloidogenic Activity
Katarina Siposova,Veronika Huntosova,Yulia Shlapa,Lenka Lenkavska,Mariana Macajova,Anatolii Grigorievich Belous,Andrey Musatov
ACS Applied Bio Materials. 2019;
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103 Development of Novel EE/Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles for Lysozyme Delivery: Physicochemical Properties and In Vitro Safety
Sabrina Sepúlveda-Rivas,Hans Fritz,Camila Valenzuela,Carlos Santiviago,Javier Morales
Pharmaceutics. 2019; 11(3): 103
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104 Preparation of smectic itraconazole nanoparticles with tunable periodic order using microfluidics-based anti-solvent precipitation
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105 Synthesis of natural nanopesticides with the origin of Eucalyptus globulus extract for pest control
Zohreh Khoshraftar,Ali Akbar Safekordi,Ali Shamel,Mohammad Zaefizadeh
Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. 2019; 12(3): 286
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106 Synergistic assembly of peptide amphiphiles with varying polarities for encapsulation of Camptothecin
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Materialia. 2019; : 100516
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107 Mechanism and therapeutic window of a genistein nanosuspension to protect against hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome
Michael R Landauer,Adam J Harvey,Michael D Kaytor,Regina M Day
Journal of Radiation Research. 2019;
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108 Nano-TiO2 stability in medium and size as important factors of toxicity in macrophage-like cells
T. Brzicova,J. Sikorova,A. Milcova,K. Vrbova,J. Klema,P. Pikal,Z. Lubovska,V. Philimonenko,F. Franco,J. Topinka,P. Rossner
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109 Formation and characterization of self-assembled bovine serum albumin nanoparticles as chrysin delivery systems
Joana B. Ferrado,Adrián A. Perez,Flavia F. Visentini,Germán A. Islan,Guillermo R. Castro,Liliana G. Santiago
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110 Annona muricata assisted biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles regulates cell cycle arrest in NSCLC cell lines
Shanmugapriya Meenakshisundaram,Varunkumar Krishnamoorthy,Yogeswaran Jagadeesan,Ravikumar Vilwanathan,Anandaraj Balaiah
Bioorganic Chemistry. 2019; : 103451
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111 Gold-coated plant virus as computed tomography imaging contrast agent
Alaa A A Aljabali,Mazhar S Al Zoubi,Khalid M Al-Batanyeh,Ali Al-Radaideh,Mohammad A Obeid,Abeer Al Sharabi,Walhan Alshaer,Bayan AbuFares,Tasnim Al-Zanati,Murtaza M Tambuwala,Naveed Akbar,David J Evans
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology. 2019; 10: 1983
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112 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Extracellular Pigment from Talaromyces purpurogenus and Their Biomedical Applications
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Nanomaterials. 2019; 9(7): 1042
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113 Covalent Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanoparticles for the Sustained Delivery of Naloxone
Andrew J. Kassick,Heather N. Allen,Saigopalakrishna Saileelaprasad Yerneni,Fathima Pary,Marina Kovaliov,Cooper Cheng,Marco Pravetoni,Nestor D. Tomycz,Donald M. Whiting,Toby L. Nelson,Michael Geoffery Feasel,Phil Gordon Campbell,Benedict Kolber,Saadyah E. Averick
ACS Applied Bio Materials. 2019;
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114 The Characterization and Stability of the Soy Protein Isolate / 1-Octacosanol Nanocomplex
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Food Chemistry. 2019;
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115 Biologically safe colloidal suspensions of naked iron oxide nanoparticles for in situ antibiotic suppression
Massimiliano Magro,Davide Baratella,Simone Molinari,Andrea Venerando,Gabriella Salviulo,Giulia Chemello,Ike Olivotto,Giorgio Zoppellaro,Juri Ugolotti,Claudia Aparicio,Jiri Tucek,Anna P. Fifi,Giuseppe Radaelli,Radek Zboril,Fabio Vianello
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116 Production of dasatinib encapsulated spray-dried poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles
Rajat Chauhan,Rayeanne Balgemann,Christopher Greb,Betty M. Nunn,Shunichiro Ueda,Hidetaka Noma,Kevin McDonald,Henry J. Kaplan,Shigeo Tamiya,Martin G. OæToole
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2019; 53: 101204
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117 Molecular simulation driven experiment for formulation of fixed dose combination of Darunavir and ritonavir as anti-HIV nanosuspension
Chetan Hasmukh Mehta,Reema Narayan,Gururaj Aithal,Sudharsan Pandiyan,Pritesh Bhat,Swapnil Dengale,Abhishek Shah,Usha Yogendra Nayak,Sanjay Garg
Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2019; : 111469
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118 Effect of Lyophilization on the Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Food Grade Liposomes that Encapsulate Rutin
Johana Lopez-Polo,Andrea Silva-Weiss,Begoña Giménez,Plinio Cantero-López,Ricardo Vega,Fernando A. Osorio
Food Research International. 2019; : 108967
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119 Development of a topical applied functional food formulation: Adlay bran oil nanoemulgel
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120 Advanced Formulation Approaches for Ocular Drug Delivery: State-Of-The-Art and Recent Patents
Eliana B. Souto,João Dias-Ferreira,Ana López-Machado,Miren Ettcheto,Amanda Cano,Antonio Camins Espuny,Marta Espina,Maria Luisa Garcia,Elena Sánchez-López
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121 Nano-antimicrobials: A New Paradigm for Combating Mycobacterial Resistance
Prasad Minakshi,Mayukh Ghosh,Basanti Brar,Rajesh Kumar,Upendra P. Lambe,Koushlesh Ranjan,Jinu Manoj,Gaya Prasad
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2019; 25(13): 1554
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122 Injectable Chitosan Scaffolds with Calcium ß-Glycerophosphate as the Only Neutralizing Agent
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123 Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of Canola Protein Isolate Films As Improved by Cellulose Nanocrystals
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ACS Omega. 2019;
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124 Treatment for chemical burning using liquid crystalline nanoparticles as an ophthalmic delivery system for pirfenidone
Rummenigge Oliveira Silva,Bruna Lopes da Costa,Flavia Rodrigues da Silva,Carolina Nunes da Silva,Mayara Brandão de Paiva,Lays Fernanda Nunes Dourado,Ângelo Malachias,Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo,Paula Santos Nunes,Armando Silva-Cunha
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125 Encapsulation and sustained release properties of watermelon flavor and its characteristic aroma compounds from ?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes
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126 Development and Characterization of Liposomal Formulations Containing Phytosterols Extracted from Canola Oil Deodorizer Distillate along with Tocopherols as Food Additives
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127 Engineered polymeric iron oxide nanoparticles as potential drug carrier for targeted delivery of docetaxel to breast cancer cells
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Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. 2019; 485: 165
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128 Tunable Composition of Dynamic Non-Viral Vectors over the DNA Polyplex Formation and Nucleic Acid Transfection
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Polymers. 2019; 11(8): 1313
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129 Development of Universal Formulation with Superior Re-dispersion Using Nanocrystal Approach with Simultaneous Identification of API Physicochemical Properties
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130 Effect of Physiochemical Factors and Peanut Varieties on the Charge Stability of Oil Bodies Extracted by Aqueous Method
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131 Synergy of the flow behaviour and disperse phase of cellulose nanoparticles in enhancing oil recovery at reservoir condition
Augustine Agi,Radzuan Junin,Agus Arsad,Azza Abbas,Afeez Gbadamosi,Nur Bashirah Azli,Jeffrey Oseh,Kalisadhan Mukherjee
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132 Enhancement of thermal conductivity of titanium dioxide nanoparticle suspensions by femtosecond laser irradiation
Jeonghong Ha,Hyeonjin Jeon,Tae-Youl Choi,Dongsik Kim
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2019; 133: 662
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133 Nanocrystals: A perspective on translational research and clinical studies
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Bioengineering & Translational Medicine. 2019; 4(1): 5
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134 State of the Art of Pharmaceutical Solid Forms: from Crystal Property Issues to Nanocrystals Formulation
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ChemMedChem. 2019; 14(1): 8
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135 Emulsions prepared by ultrahigh methoxylated pectin through the phase inversion method
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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019; 128: 167
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136 Fabrication and Evaluation of Lambda-Cyhalothrin Nanosuspension by One-Step Melt Emulsification Technique
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137 Agglomeration of iron oxide nanoparticles: pH effect is stronger than amino acid acidity
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138 Interaction of Phosphate with Lithium Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles: A Combined Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Study
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139 Synergistic Antioxidant Capacity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Lycopene Against Aging Hepatotoxicity Induced by D-galactose in Male Rats
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International Journal of Pharmacology. 2018; 14(6): 811
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140 Impact of Phosphate Adsorption on Complex Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticle Dispersibility in Aqueous Media
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Environmental Science & Technology. 2018;
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141 Carcinoembryonic antigen-targeted nanoparticles potentiate the delivery of anticancer drugs to colorectal cancer cells
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International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2018; 549(1-2): 397
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142 Effects of ZnO nanoparticles in the Caspian roach ( Rutilus rutilus caspicus )
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143 FSE–Ag complex NS: preparation and evaluation of antibacterial activity
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144 Development of Fluorometholone-loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Treatment of Inflammatory Disorders of Anterior and Posterior Segments of the Eye
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International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2018;
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145 Effects of different emulsifiers on the bonding performance, freeze-thaw stability and retrogradation behavior of the resulting high amylose starch-based wood adhesive
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146 Design and characterization of loratadine nanosuspension prepared by ultrasonic-assisted precipitation
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147 Topical delivery of ebselen encapsulated in biopolymeric nanocapsules: drug repurposing enhanced antifungal activity
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148 Influencing factors on the stabilization of colloid biliquid aphrons and its effectiveness used for density modification of DNAPLs in subsurface environment
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149 Release kinetics and cell viability of ibuprofen nanocrystals produced by melt-emulsification
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150 Enhancing the recovery of oilseed rape seed oil bodies (oleosomes) using bicarbonate-based soaking and grinding media
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151 A quality-by-design study to develop Nifedipine nanosuspension: examining the relative impact of formulation variables, wet media milling process parameters and excipient variability on drug product quality attributes
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152 GABA B receptor ligand-directed trimethyl chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles and their pMDI formulation for survivin siRNA pulmonary delivery
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Carbohydrate Polymers. 2018; 179: 135
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153 Deep insight into PEGylation of bioadhesive chitosan nanoparticles: Sensitivity study for the key parameters through artificial neural network model
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154 Zeaxanthin nanoencapsulation with Opuntia monacantha mucilage as structuring material: Characterization and stability evaluation under different temperatures
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155 Nanosuspension of quercetin: preparation, characterization and effects against Aedes aegypti larvae
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156 Liposome: composition, characterisation, preparation, and recent innovation in clinical applications
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157 Preparation and evaluation of BSA-based hydrosol nanoparticles cross-linked with genipin for oral administration of poorly water-soluble curcumin
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158 Design and Synthesis of ?- and d-Lactam M1 Positive Allosteric Modulators (PAMs): Convulsion and Cholinergic Toxicity of an M1-Selective PAM with Weak Agonist Activity
Jennifer E. Davoren,Michelle Garnsey,Betty Pettersen,Michael A. Brodney,Jeremy R. Edgerton,Jean Philippe Fortin,Sarah Grimwood,Antony R. Harris,Stephen Jenkinson,Terry P. Kenakin,John T. Lazzaro,Che-Wah Lee,Susan M. Lotarski,Lisa Nottebaum,Steven V. OæNeil,Michael Popiolek,Simeon Ramsey,Stefanus J. Steyn,Catherine A. Thorn,Lei Zhang,Damien Webb
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159 Octacosanol educes physico-chemical attributes, release and bioavailability as modified nanocrystals
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160 Reducible PEG-POD/DNA Nanoparticles for Gene Transfer In Vitro and In Vivo: Application in a Mouse Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
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161 Impact of Dendrimers on Solubility of Hydrophobic Drug Molecules
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Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017; 8
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162 Encapsulation of E. coli in biomimetic and Fe3O4-doped hydrogel: structural and viability analyses
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163 High drug payload curcumin nanosuspensions stabilized by mPEG-DSPE and SPC: in vitro and in vivo evaluation
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164 Role of enzymatic free radical scavengers in management of oxidative stress in autoimmune disorders
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165 Maintaining Supersaturation of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Solutions with Biologically Relevant Bile Salts
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166 Nanosystem trends in drug delivery using quality-by-design concept
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167 Dispersion enhancing effect of sonochemically functionalized graphene oxide for catalysing antioxidant efficacy of curcumin
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168 Genotoxic effects in transformed and non-transformed human breast cell lines after exposure to silver nanoparticles in combination with aluminium chloride, butylparaben or di- n -butylphthalate
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169 Novel technologies to enhance solubility of food-derived bioactive compounds: A review
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170 Palmitoylethanolamide sub-micronization using fast precipitation followed by supercritical fluids extraction
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171 Effects of different combinations of nanocrystallization technologies on avanafil nanoparticles: in vitro, in vivo and stability evaluation
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172 Silver nanoparticles from Prosopis glandulosa and their potential application as biocontrol of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Bacillus cereus
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173 A recent trend of drug-nanoparticles in suspension for the application in drug delivery
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174 Size and Charge Stability of Oil Bodies from Peanut
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175 Comparison of Different Nanosuspensions as Potential Ophthalmic Delivery Systems for Ketotifen Fumarate
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176 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pluchea sericea a Native Plants from Baja California, Mexico and their Potential Application as Antimicrobials
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177 DLS and zeta potential – What they are and what they are not?
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178 Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity
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181 Modeling the Viscosity of Concentrated Nanoemulsions and Nanosuspensions
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196 Hollow superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoshells as a hydrophobic anticancer drug carrier: intracelluar pH-dependent drug release and enhanced cytotoxicity
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International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 4(2)


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