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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 104-109  

Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant

Department of Pharmaceutical, I.P.G.T and R.A, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jul-2011

Correspondence Address:
Nayan R Bhalodia
Panchavati Gaushala, 95-B, Sarusection Road, Opp. Gita Bunglow, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.82956

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This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant) was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ΅g/ml) of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive--Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative--Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains--Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

Keywords: Cassia fistula , in vitro antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, secondary metabolites

How to cite this article:
Bhalodia NR, Shukla V J. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2011;2:104-9

How to cite this URL:
Bhalodia NR, Shukla V J. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2023 Feb 9];2:104-9. Available from: https://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2011/2/2/104/82956

   Introduction Top

Antibiotics are one of our most important weapons in fighting bacterial infections and have greatly benefited the health-related quality of human life since their introduction. However, over the past few decades, these health benefits are under threat as many commonly used antibiotics have become less and less effective against certain illnesses not, only because many of them produce toxic reactions, but also due to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. It is essential to investigate newer drugs with lesser resistance. Drugs derived from natural sources play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. In many developing countries, traditional medicine is one of the primary healthcare systems. [1],[2] Herbs are widely exploited in the traditional medicine and their curative potentials are well documented. [3] About 61% of new drugs developed between 1981 and 2002 were based on natural products and they have been very successful, especially in the areas of infectious disease and cancer. [4] Recent trends, however, show that the discovery rate of active novel chemical entities is declining. [5] Natural products of higher plants may give a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. [6,7] The effects of plant extracts on bacteria have been studied by a very large number of researchers in different parts of the world. [8] Much work has been done on ethnomedicinal plants in India. [9]

Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, etc., which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. [10],[11]

Herbal medicines have been known to man for centuries. Therapeutic efficacy of many indigenous plants for several disorders has been described by practitioners of traditional medicine. [12] Antimicrobial properties of medicinal plants are being increasingly reported from different parts of the world. The World Health Organization estimates that plant extracts or their active constituents are used as folk medicine in traditional therapies of 80% of the world's population. [13] The harmful microorganisms can be controlled with drugs and these results in the emergence of multiple drug-resistant bacteria and it has created alarming clinical situations in the treatment of infections. The pharmacological industries have produced a number of new antibiotics; resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has increased. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to synthetic drugs which are utilized as therapeutic agents. [14]

In an effort to expand the spectrum of antibacterial agents from natural resources, Cassia fistula belonging to Leguminosae family has been selected. In the Indian literature, this plant has been described to be useful against skin diseases, liver troubles, tuberculoses glands and its use into the treatment of hematemesis, pruritus, leucoderma, and diabetes has been suggested. [15],[16] It has been concluded that plant parts could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia partially due to their fiber and mucilage content. [17] Besides its pharmacological uses, the plant extract is also recommended as a pest and disease control agents in India. [18],[19],[20] This plant is widely used by tribal people to treat various ailments including ringworm and other fungal skin infections. [21] The leaves are laxative, antiperiodic, depurative, anti-inflammatory, and are useful in skin diseases, boils, carbuncles, ulcers, intermittent fever, gouty arthritis, and rheumatalgia. Cassia fistula plant organs are known to be an important source of secondary metabolites, Indian people are using the leaves to treat inflammation; Cassia fistula plant organs are known to be an important source of secondary metabolites, notably phenolic compounds. [22]

Cassia fistula exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and showed properties that support folkloric use in the treatment of some diseases as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. [23] Thus, Cassia fistula is well anchored in its traditional uses has now found wide-spread acceptance across the world.

In the current investigation carried out, a screening of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cassia fistula leaves against pathogenic bacteria and fungi is done in order to detect new sources of antimicrobial agents.

   Materials and Methods Top

Collection of Plant Materials

The fresh and healthy leaves of the plant Cassia fistula were collected between June and August, 2009 from various areas of Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India. The plant specimens were identified in department of Pharmacognosy I.P.G.T and R.A. (Institute of post graduate teaching and research in ayurveda), Jamnagar. Plant parts were collected on the basis of the information provided in the ethnobotanical survey of India. Each specimen/plant material was labeled, numbered, a noted with the date of collection, locality, and their medicinal uses were recorded.

Preparation of Plant Extract


The extraction of the Cassia fistula leaves was carried out using known standard procedures. [24] The plant materials were dried in shade and powdered in a mechanical grinder. The powder (25.0 g) of the plant materials were initially defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°C), followed by 900 ml of hydroalcohol by using a Soxhlet extractor for 72 hours at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. The extracts were filtered using Whatman filter paper (No.1) while hot, concentrated in vacuum under reduced pressure using rotary flask evaporator, and dried in a desiccator. The hydroalcoholic extract yields a dark greenish solid residue weighing 5.750 g (23.0% w/w). More yields of extracts were collected by this method of extractions. The extracts were then kept in sterile bottles, under refrigerated conditions, until further use. The dry weight of the plant extracts was obtained by the solvent evaporation and used to determine concentration in mg/ml. The extract was preserved at 2- to 4 o C. This crude extracts of hydroalcohol was used for further investigation for potential of antimicrobial properties.

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening

The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical testing to detect for the presence of different chemical groups of compounds. Air-dried and powdered plant materials were screened for the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, anthraquinones, coumarin, saponins, gum, mucilage, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, starch, protein, and amino acids, as described in literatures. [25],[26],[27]

Test Microorganisms and Growth Media

The following microorganisms

Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96),  Streptococcus pyogenes Scientific Name Search 442),  Escherichia More Details coli (MTCC 443),  Pseudomonas aeruginosa Scientific Name Search TCC 424) and fungal strains Aspergillus niger (MTCC 282), Aspergillus clavatus (MTCC 1323), Candida albicans (MTCC 227) were chosen based on their clinical and pharmacological importance. [28] The bacterial strains obtained from Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, were used for evaluating antimicrobial activity. The bacterial and fungal stock cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C on nutrient agar and potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium (Microcare laboratory, Surat, India), respectively, following refrigeration storage at 4°C. The bacterial strains were grown in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) plates at 37°C (the bacteria were grown in the nutrient broth at 37°C and maintained on nutrient agar slants at 4°C), whereas the yeasts and molds were grown in Sabouraud dextrose agar and PDA media, respectively, at 28°C. The stock cultures were maintained at 4°C.

Antimicrobial Activity

Determination of zone of inhibition method

In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities were examined for hydroalcohol extracts. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of plant part extracts against four pathogenic bacteria (two Gram-positive and negative) and three pathogenic fungi were investigated by the agar disk diffusion method. [29],[30],[31] Antimicrobial activity testing was carried out by using agar cup method. Each purified extracts were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, sterilized by filtration using sintered glass filter, and stored at 4°C. For the determination of zone of inhibition, pure Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal strains were taken as a standard antibiotic for comparison of the results. All the extracts were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against the Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and the fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus clavatus. The sets of five dilutions (5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg/ml) of Cassia fistula extract and standard drugs were prepared in double-distilled water using nutrient agar tubes. Mueller-Hinton sterile agar plates were seeded with indicator bacterial strains (10 8 cfu) and allowed to stay at 37 o C for 3 hours. Control experiments were carried out under similar condition by using ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity as standard drugs. The zones of growth inhibition around the disks were measured after 18 to 24 hours of in incubation at 37°C for bacteria and 48 to 96 hours for fungi at 28°C. The sensitivities of the microorganism species to the plant extracts were determined by measuring the sizes of inhibitory zones (including the diameter of disk) on the agar surface around the disks, and values <8 mm were considered as not active against microorganisms.

   Results and Discussion Top


Preliminary phytochemical screening

It was found that hydroalcoholic extracts of Cassia fistula leaves contained tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, anthraquinones, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids.

Microbial activity

The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula were studied in different concentrations (5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg/ml) against four pathogenic bacterial strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC 442) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli MTCC 443, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 424), and three fungal strains (Aspergillus niger MTCC 282, Aspergillus clavatus MTCC 1323, Candida albicans MTCC 227). These strains have been selected for the basis of its application purpose of further formulation study.

Antibacterial and antifungal potential of extracts were assessed in terms of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth. The results of the antibacterial and antifungal activities are presented in [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 1: Antibacterial activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of Cassia fi stula against bacterial test organism

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Table 2: Antibacterial activity of standard drugs against bacterial test organism

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Table 3: Antibacterial activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of Cassia fi stula against fungal test organism

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Table 4: Antifungal activity of standard drugs against fungal test organism

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The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extracts (μg/ml). As compared with standard drugs, the results revealed that in the extracts for bacterial activity, S. pyogenes and S. aureus were more sensitive as compared with E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and for fungal activity, C. albicans shows good result as compare with A. niger and A. clavatus. The growth inhibition zone measured ranged from 11 to 20 mm for all the sensitive bacteria, and ranged from 14 to 20 mm for fungal strains [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6] and [Figure 7].
Figure 1: Antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes (MTCC 442)

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Figure 2: Antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MTCC 96)

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Figure 3: Antibacterial activity against E. coli (MTCC 443)

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Figure 4: Antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424)

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Figure 5: Antifungal activity against A. niger (MTCC 282)

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Figure 6: Antifungal activity against A. clavatus (MTCC 1323)

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Figure 7: Antifungal activity against C. albicans (MTCC 227); CML - Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves

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The results show that the extracts of Cassia fistula were found to be more effective against all the microbes tested.


Antimicrobial properties of medicinal plants are being increasingly reported from different parts of the world. The World Health Organization estimates that plant extract or their active constituents are used as folk medicine in traditional therapies of 80% of the world's population. In the present work, the extracts obtained from Cassia fistula show strong activity against most of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. The results were compared with standard antibiotic drugs. In this screening work, extracts of Cassia fistula were found to be not inactive against any organism, such as Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal strains were resistant to all the extracts of Cassia fistula.

The above results show that the activity of hydroalcohol extracts of Cassia fistula shows significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. This study also shows the presence of different phytochemicals with biological activity that can be of valuable therapeutic index. The result of phytochemicals in the present investigation showed that the plant contains more or less same components like saponin, triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, anthraquinone, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Results show that plant rich in tannin and phenolic compounds have been shown to posses antimicrobial activities against a number of microorganisms.

   Conclusion Top

In the current investigation, the hydroalcohol extract in the ratio of 8 : 2 has been selected after study of such a selected plant with water extracts and methanol extracts, hydroalcohol extract gave higher yield of chemical constituents expected for this research work; the originality of this work is that good results have been found with hydroalcohol ratio, and it will be helpful to carry out other data with MIC and other formulation study, because in comparison of methanol or water extracts, hydroalcohol is more suitable for clinical study. The hydroalcoholic extracts of Cassia fistula were found to be active on most of the clinically isolated microorganism and fungi, as compare with standard drugs. The present study justified the claimed uses of leaves in the traditional system of medicine to treat various infectious disease caused by the microbes. However, further studies are needed to better evaluate the potential effectiveness of the crude extracts as the antimicrobial agents. The present results will form the basis for selection of plant species for further investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive compounds. Further studies which aimed at the isolation and structure elucidation of antibacterial active constituents from the plant have been initiated.

   Acknowledgment Top

The authors of this paper are thankful to the Director, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India, for their invaluable support and for providing all the research facilities. The authors are also thankful to the Mycrocare laboratory, Surat, Gujarat, India, for helping and providing necessary facilities for this research work.

   References Top

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

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Crystals. 2022; 12(8): 1133
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24 Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Characterization of Polyphenol-Enriched Extract of Egyptian Celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae) Aerial Parts via UPLC/ESI/TOF-MS
Ayat M. Emad, Dalia M. Rasheed, Reham F. El-Kased, Dina M. El-Kersh
Molecules. 2022; 27(3): 698
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25 Antidiarrheal and Antibacterial Actions of Methanol Extract of Cassia fistula (Linn) Leaves
Isaac John Umaru, Ebenezer Morayo Ale, Imaranezor Kenneth, Bilyaminu Habibu, Muhammad Zuhairah I, Okoli Chikodiri , Yusuf Dawoye, Barrah Collins Ch
Journal of Applied Sciences. 2022; 22(6): 279
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26 Ecological and ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants in Narendranagar forest division under Indian Himalayan region
Dharm Meena, Akash Saklani, Chandra Sanwal, Bhupendra Bhandari
Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products. 2022; 28(3): 89
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27 Antifungal and antibacterial activity of the different parts of mature Benincasa hispida against various microbial infectious agents
Khasrul Alam Md.,Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal Mohammad,Ajam Morsed,Rezuanul Islam Md.
African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2021; 15(7): 349
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28 Antagonistic pattern of yeast species against some selected food-borne pathogens
Ilesanmi Festus Fadahunsi,Simbo Olubodun
Bulletin of the National Research Centre. 2021; 45(1)
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29 Pits of Date Palm: Bioactive Composition, Antibacterial Activity and Antimutagenicity Potentials
Samy Selim, Mohamed Abdel-Mawgoud, Tarak Al-sharary, Mohammed Almuhayawi, Mohammed Alruhaili, Soad Al Jaouni, Mona Warrad, Hussein Mohamed, Nosheen Akhtar, Hamada AbdElgawad
Agronomy. 2021; 12(1): 54
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30 Molecular Docking Simulation Studies Identifies Potential Natural Product Derived-Antiwolbachial Compounds as Filaricides against Onchocerciasis
Samuel Kwofie, Emmanuel Broni, Faruk Yunus, John Nsoh, Dela Adoboe, Whelton Miller, Michael Wilson
Biomedicines. 2021; 9(11): 1682
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31 Enzymatic Synthesis, Structural Analysis, and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and a-Glucosidase Inhibition of Hesperidin Glycosides
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Catalysts. 2021; 11(5): 532
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32 Isolation and molecular identification of microorganisms isolated from soils contaminated with heavy metals in Mosul city
Sana R. Alkazaz, Mohammad I. Khalil, Mazin N. Fadhel
Bionatura. 2021; 6(4): 2196
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33 Quantification of Lupeol as Secondary Metabolite by HPTLC Technique and Assessment of Antimicrobial Potential of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Betula alnoides Bark
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Oriental Journal Of Chemistry. 2021; 37(2): 426
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34 Antibacterial Activity of Environmentally Sustainable Polyurethane Based Composites from Castor Oil
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Oriental Journal Of Chemistry. 2021; 37(3): 755
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35 Antioxidant, antibacterial and electrochemical activity of (E)-N-(4 (dimethylamino) benzylidene)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine ligand and its transition metal complexes
Md. Mahadi Hasan,Habib Md. Ahsan,Prianka Saha,Jannatul Naime,Asish Kumar Das,Md. Ali Asraf,A.B.M. Nazmul Islam
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36 Bioactive potential of Albizia lebbeck extract against phytopathogens and protective properties on tomato plant against speck disease in greenhouse
Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Ki Choon Choi, Asha Devasahayam Vincent Bensy, J. Rajaselvam
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. 2021; : 101750
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37 Polymer complexes. LXXIV. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity studies of polymer complexes of some transition metals with bis-bidentate Schiff base
S.G. Nozha, Sh.M. Morgan, S.E. Abu Ahmed, M.A. El-Mogazy, M.A. Diab, A.Z. El-Sonbati, M.I. Abou-Dobara
Journal of Molecular Structure. 2021; 1227: 129525
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38 Aconitum heterophylum from Kashmir: evaluation of Fatty acid profile, Antibacterial, Antioxidant activities and Functional group analysis
Zubair Rehman Nengroo,Adil Shafi Ganie,Mohammad Azeem
Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications. 2021; : 100105
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39 Effect of corm age on the antioxidant, bactericidal and fungicidal activities of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigmas
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40 Pyrrole-Fused Benzoxazinones/Quinoxalinones: Molecular Dynamic Simulation, Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities
Suresh Selvendran, Souvik Das, Kamran Waidha, Swathi Venkatesan, M. M. Balamurali, Biswarup Basu, Saravanakumar Rajendran
ChemistrySelect. 2021; 6(40): 10872
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41 Potential of ethno-veterinary medicine in animal health care practices in the South Pacific Island countries: a review
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42 In vitro Antitumor, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Phenylthio-Ethyl Benzoate Derivatives
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Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2020;
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43 Synthesis, crystal structure, and ADME prediction studies of novel imidazopyrimidines as antibacterial and cytotoxic agents
Heba T. Abdel-Mohsen,Amira Abood,Keith J. Flanagan,Alina Meindl,Mathias O. Senge,Hoda I. El Diwani
Archiv der Pharmazie. 2020;
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44 Profiling the Lipophilic Fractions of Pithecellobium dulce Bark and Leaves Using GC/MS and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities
Sara Saeed Kotb,Iriny M. Ayoub,Safaa A. El-Moghazy,Abdel Nasser B. Singab
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45 Methanol soluble fraction of fruits of Annona muricata possesses significant antidiarrheal activities
Nahida Afroz,Md. Ahsanul Hoq,Sharmin Jahan,Md. Mainul Islam,Firoz Ahmed,A.F.M. Shahid-Ud-Daula,Md. Hasanuzzaman
Heliyon. 2020; 6(1): e03112
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46 Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Senna and Cassia species (Fabaceae) extracts
Michelle Nauara Gomes do Nascimento,Mário Machado Martins,Luís Carlos Scalon Cunha,Paula de Souza Santos,Luiz Ricardo Goulart,Thayná de Souza Silva,Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins,Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais,Marcos Pivatto
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47 Antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz: a medicinal plant of Northeast India
Prapty Das,Sneha Hasnu,Lipika Lahkar,Saurov Mahanta,Sashin Kumar Borthakur,Bhaben Tanti
Advances in Traditional Medicine. 2020;
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48 Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potential of Helicteres isora Linn. Leaf Extracts
Renuka Mahajan,Prakash Itankar
Digital Chinese Medicine. 2020; 3(3): 188
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49 Tannins as an alternative to antibiotics
Arakkaveettil Kabeer Farha,Qiong-Qiong Yang,Gowoon Kim,Hua-Bin Li,Fan Zhu,Hong-Yan Liu,Ren-You Gan,Harold Corke
Food Bioscience. 2020; 38: 100751
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50 Comparative Study of the Antibiotic Potency of Natural (Cyanthillium cinereum and Moringa oleifera) and Synthetic (Ampicillin and Erythromycin) Antibiotics
Tresonne Headley, Ruth Daniel, Elford Liverpool, Abdullah Adil Ansari
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2020; 14(1): 287
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51 Antioxidant and anti-candida activity of selected medicinal plants of Indian origin
Suneel Prajapati,Aarti Bhardwaj,Pankaj Gupta
Herba Polonica. 2020; 66(3): 1
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52 Phytochemical screening and biological assays of ethanolic leaf extract of Senna rugosa
Letícia Figueiredo Cunha,Camila Marques Costa,Poliana Ribeiro Barroso,Kelly Cristina Kato,Fabrício de Oliveira,Carlos Victor Mendonça Filho,Cristiane Fernanda Fuzer Grael,Luiz Elídio Gregório,Fernanda Fraga Campos,Patrícia Machado de Oliveira,Danilo Bretas de Oliveira,Fernando Armini Ruela,Helen Rodrigues Martins
Rodriguésia. 2020; 71
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53 Development of amphotericin b Based organogels against mucocutaneous fungal infections
Kavya Gopalan,Jobin Jose
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 56
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54 Phytochemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Cassia Fistula
Muhammad Saeed,Sumra Naseer,Shabbir Hussain,Muhammad Iqbal
Scientific Inquiry and Review. 2020; 4(1): 59
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55 Role of Putikadi Lepa in the management of Dadru Kushtha (Tinea corporis): A case study
MinakshiAvinash Urkude,SonaliP Chalakh,ShantiS Manyala
Journal of Indian System of Medicine. 2020; 8(2): 141
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56 Cytogenetic Toxicity of Juniperus procera Extract with Silver Nanoparticles Against Carcinoma Colon (Caco2) Cell Line in vitro
Magdah Ganash
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2019; 15(5): 576
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57 Synthesis, Characterization of Shiff Base Cu Salpn Complexes and Biological Pontential Study
A. Akila A. Akila,J. Shakina J. Shakina
Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology. 2019; 8(1): 34
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58 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Mannich Bases of Isoxazoline Derivatives as Possible Antimicrobial Agents
Seema A. Gosavi,Dattatray H. Nandal,Sarita S. Pawar
Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2019; 31(12): 2821
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59 Assessment of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties and In Vivo Cytotoxicity of Peruvian Passiflora mollisima
Adrián Calderon,Julio Salas,Giannina Dapello,Eloy Gamboa,José Rosas,Juana Chávez,Fernando Retuerto,Frank Mayta-Tovalino
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2019; 20(2): 145
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60 Biosynthesis of methyl glucoside and its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli
Jarunee Kaulpiboon,Prakarn Rudeekulthamrong
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 2019; : 100197
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61 PhI(OAc)2 -Mediated One-Pot Synthesis and their Antibacterial Activity of Flavone and Coumarin Based Isoxazoles Under Mild Reaction Conditions
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ChemistrySelect. 2019; 4(6): 1872
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62 Antimicrobial, anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Selaginella (Sanjeevini) plant extract
Dakshayani S.S.,Marulasiddeshwara M.B.,Sharath Kumar M.N.,Ramesh Golla,Raghavendra Kumar P.,Devaraja S.,Rashmi Hosamani
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019; 131: 787
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63 Serial dilution bioassay for the detection of antibacterial potential of ZnSe quantum dots and their Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy
Ali Reza Khezripour,Dariush Souri,Hadis Tavafi,Mehdi Ghabooli
Measurement. 2019; : 106939
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64 Toxicology evaluation and Antidermatophytic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaf extract of Passiflora caerulea
Santhoshkumar. J,Sowmya B,Venkat Kumar S,Rajeshkumar S
South African Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2019;
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65 Review on antibacterial activity of Himalayan medicinal plants traditionally used to treat pneumonia and tuberculosis
Muhammad Adnan,Shandana Ali,Khushboo Sheikh,Rahila Amber
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2019;
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66 Evaluation of the Bioactivities of Rumex crispus L. Leaves and Root Extracts Using Toxicity, Antimicrobial, and Antiparasitic Assays
Oladayo Amed Idris,Olubunmi Abosede Wintola,Anthony Jide Afolayan
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2019; 2019: 1
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67 Antimicrobial Effects of Egyptian Local Chicory, Cichorium endivia subsp. pumilum
Ahmed M. Amer
International Journal of Microbiology. 2018; 2018: 1
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68 Evaluation of in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Artemisia apiacea H. and Scutellaria baicalensis G. extracts
Huan Trinh,Youngchul Yoo,Kyung-Hwa Won,Hien T. T. Ngo,Jung-Eun Yang,Jin-Gyeong Cho,Sang-Won Lee,Ki-Young Kim,Tae-Hoo Yi
Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2018;
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69 Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Micropropagation and Field-Grown Plants of Wedelia biflora [L.]
A.B.A. Ahmed,J. Magesh,S.N. Idris,E.N. Mubarak,R.M. Taha
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2018; 21(6): 1712
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70 In vitro antibacterial and time-kill assay of ethanolic extract of Davilla nitida bark on multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from diabetic foot lesions
Michele Cezimbra Perim,Joelma da Costa Borges,Eulália Maria Lima da Silva,Thiago Antônio de Sousa Araújo,Ana Carolina Oliveira da Silva,Valéria Christiane da Silva,Solange Cristina Carreiro,Anderson Ferreira Cunha,Maria Cristina da Silva Pranchevicius
Natural Product Research. 2018; : 1
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71 Chemical, antimicrobial, and molecular characterization of mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth) fruits and leaves
Susana Llivisaca,Patricia Manzano,Jenny Ruales,José Flores,Joffre Mendoza,Esther Peralta,Juan M. Cevallos-Cevallos
Food Science & Nutrition. 2018;
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72 Synthesis, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Some New 2-(3-fluorobenzyl)-1H -benzimidazole Derivatives
Hakan Bektas,Canan Albay,Bahar Bilgin Sökmen,Sinem Aydin,Emre Mentese,Gülbahar Aydin,Dilem Sen
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2018;
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73 Glass-ceramic nanoparticles in the Ag2O–TeO2–V2O5 system: Antibacterial and bactericidal potential, their structural and extended XRD analysis by using Williamson–Smallman approach
Yazdan Shahmoradi,Dariush Souri,Mehdi Khorshidi
Ceramics International. 2018;
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74 Antibacterial, antifungal and anticoagulant activities of chicken PLA2 group V expressed in Pichia pastoris
Aida Karray,Madiha Bou Ali,Nedia Kharrat,Youssef Gargouri,Sofiane Bezzine
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2018; 108: 127
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75 Dextran based herbal nanobiocomposite membranes for scar free wound healing
Surabhi Singh,Amlan Gupta,Deepika Sharma,Bhuvanesh Gupta
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2018;
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76 The antibacterial activity of bacterial endophytes isolated from Combretum molle
O. Diale Mamonokane,Ubomba-Jaswa Eunice,H. Serepa-Dlamini Mahloro
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2018; 17(8): 255
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77 Antibacterial effects of Thymbra spicata L. extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni
Gamze Çinar,Nursen Yaman,Muhsin AYDIN
Commagene Journal of Biology. 2018; -(-): 21
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78 Fruit Stem-End Rot
Ortal Galsurker,Sonia Diskin,Dalia Maurer,Oleg Feygenberg,Noam Alkan
Horticulturae. 2018; 4(4): 50
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79 Organotin(IV) Dithiocarbamate Complexes: Chemistry and Biological Activity
Jerry Adeyemi,Damian Onwudiwe
Molecules. 2018; 23(10): 2571
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80 Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and Biological Applications of Novel Zinc Complexes with Schiff Bases
Mehrine Rehman,Saqib Ali,Khurram Shahzad Munawar
Key Engineering Materials. 2018; 778: 293
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81 Efficacy of a Simple Formulation Composed of Nematode-Trapping Fungi and Bidens pilosa var. radiata Scherff Aqueous Extracts (BPE) for Controlling the Southern Root-Knot Nematode
Atsushi Ajitomi,Satoshi Taba,Yoshino Ajitomi,Misa Kinjo,Ken-taro Sekine
Microbes and Environments. 2018; 33(1): 4
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82 Antimicrobial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Some Plant Extracts Against Food Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms
Faraja D. Gonelimali,Jiheng Lin,Wenhua Miao,Jinghu Xuan,Fedrick Charles,Meiling Chen,Shaimaa R. Hatab
Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018; 9
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83 <i>In Vitro</i> Antibacterial, Antifungal and Other Medical Properties of Endangered Medicinal Plant Seeds
Mohammed A. Almalki
Pharmacology & Pharmacy. 2017; 08(05): 189
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84 In vitro antimicrobial potential of extracts and phytoconstituents from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. leaves and their biosafety evaluation
Daljit Singh Arora,Henna Sood
AMB Express. 2017; 7(1)
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85 New insights of Nettle (Urtica urens): Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
Maaroufi Lobna,Sazzad Hossain M.,Tahri Wiem,Landoulsi Ahmed
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2017; 11(4): 73
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86 Synthesis, physicochemical elucidation, biological screening and molecular docking studies of a Schiff base and its metal(II) complexes
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Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2017;
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87 Effect of female group size on harem male roosting behavior of the Indian short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx
Valliyappan Mahandran,Chinnaperamanoor Madhappan Murugan,Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil Nathan
acta ethologica. 2017;
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88 Antibacterial properties of parasitic mistletoe - Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser of Brunei Darussalam
Sheba R David,Amira Amni Adam,Rajan Rajabalaya
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2017; 101: 012003
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89 Evaluation of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle (Loranthaceae), a Mistletoe Growing on Rubber Tree, Using the Dilution Techniques
Franklin Uangbaoje Ohikhena,Olubunmi Abosede Wintola,Anthony Jide Afolayan
The Scientific World Journal. 2017; 2017: 1
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90 Synthesis, pH dependent photometric and electrochemical investigation, redox mechanism and biological applications of novel Schiff base and its metallic derivatives
Abdur Rauf,Afzal Shah,Abdul Aziz Khan,Aamir Hassan Shah,Rashda Abbasi,Irfan Zia Qureshi,Saqib Ali
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2017; 176: 155
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91 Antibacterial Properties and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Leaves Growing in Bangladesh
Mohammad Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal,Md. Shahedur Rahman,Md. Belal Hossain,Satya Priya Sharma,Hea-Jong Chung,Hyeon-Jin Kim,Seong-Tshool Hong
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2017; 20(1): 155
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92 Ascertainment of pharmacological activities of Allamanda neriifolia Hook and Aegialitis rotundifolia Roxb used in Bangladesh: An in vitro study
Imam Hasan,Md. Saddam Hussain,Md. Shalahuddin Millat,Niloy Sen,Md. Abdur Rahman,Md. Atikur Rahman,Safiqul Islam,Md. Mizanur Rahman Moghal
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 2017;
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93 Optimization of the extraction of phenolic compounds from Scirpus holoschoenus using a simplex centroid design for antioxidant and antibacterial applications
Saliha Oussaid,Mohamed Chibane,Khodir Madani,Tahar Amrouche,Sabiha Achat,Farid Dahmoune,Karim Houali,Manuel Rendueles,Mario Diaz
LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2017; 86: 635
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94 In vitro antifungal activity of cassia fistula extracts against fluconazole resistant strains of Candida species from HIV patients
P. Sony,M. Kalyani,D. Jeyakumari,I. Kannan,R.G. Sukumar
Journal de Mycologie Médicale / Journal of Medical Mycology. 2017;
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95 Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine
Ashutosh Sharma,Rosario del Carmen Flores-Vallejo,Alexandre Cardoso-Taketa,María Luisa Villarreal
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;
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96 Grilling enhances antidiarrheal activity of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. fruits
Garima Pandey,Shyam Sundar Gupta,Anil Bhatia,O P Sidhu,A.K.S. Rawat,Ch V. Rao
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;
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97 In vitro and in vivo protocols of antimicrobial bioassay of medicinal herbal extracts: A review
Najeeb Ullah,Abida Parveen,Rahat Bano,Iqra Zulfiqar,Mukharma Maryam,Sadia Jabeen,Amna Liaqat,Sohail Ahmad
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2016; 6(8): 660
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98 Enzymatic synthesis of propyl-a-glycosides and their application as emulsifying and antibacterial agents
Rittichai Charoensapyanan,Kazuo Ito,Prakarn Rudeekulthamrong,Jarunee Kaulpiboon
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 2016; 21(3): 389
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99 Antimicrobial and anthelmintic potential of root and leaf extracts of Gazania krebsiana Less. subsp. serrulata (DC.) Roessler: An in vitro assessment
B.D. Tshabalala,K.A. Alayande,S. Sabiu,A.O.T. Ashafa
European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2016;
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100 Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of condensed tannins from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang
Mazni Abu Zarin,Ho Yin Wan,Azizul Isha,Armania Nurdin
Food Science and Human Wellness. 2016;
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101 Lauq
Hossein Karegar-Borzi,Mehdi Salehi,Roja Rahimi
Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2016; 21(1): 63
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102 Potential of Nypa palm as a complementary biomass crop to oil palm in Malaysia
A.K. Hakimien,I. Alshareef,W.K. Ho,A.C. Soh
Acta Horticulturae. 2016; (1128): 285
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103 Effect of Salvia chorassanica Root Aqueous, Ethanolic and Hydro Alcoholic Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli
Azam Mehraban,Mohammad Reze Edalatian Dovom,Mohammad Hosein Haddad Khodaparast,Masoumeh Mehraban Sang Atash
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2016; In Press(In Press)
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104 Anti-aging and tyrosinase inhibition effects of Cassia fistula flower butanolic extract
Pornngarm Limtrakul,Supachai Yodkeeree,Pilaiporn Thippraphan,Wanisa Punfa,Jatupol Srisomboon
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016; 16(1)
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105 Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts
Wajiha Iram,Tehmina Anjum,Mazhar Iqbal,Abdul Ghaffar,Mateen Abbas,Abdul Muqeet Khan
Frontiers in Microbiology. 2016; 07
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106 Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Pachypodium lamerei
Faek El Kashef Dina,Nageeb El Sayed Hamed Ashraf,Ezzat Khalil Hany,Mahmoud Abd Elbaky Rehab,Salah Kamel Mohamed
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2015; 9(47): 1123
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107 Investigation of derivatized schiff base ligands of 1,2,4-triazole amine and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes: Synthesis, structure, DNA binding, alkaline phosphatase inhibition, biological screening, and insulin mimetic properties
K. S. Munawar,S. Ali,M. N. Tahir,N. Khalid,Q. Abbas,I. Z. Qureshi,S. Shahzadi
Russian Journal of General Chemistry. 2015; 85(9): 2183
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108 Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of fatty chain substituted 2,5-dimethyl pyrrole and 1,3-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives
Himani Varshney,Aiman Ahmad,Abdul Rauf,Fohad M. Husain,Iqbal Ahmad
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2014;
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109 Ethnopharmacological analysis of medicinal plants and animals used in the treatment and management of pain in Mauritius
D. Priyamka Sreekeesoon,M. Fawzi Mahomoodally
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014; 157: 181
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110 Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat skin diseases by Tharu community of district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India
Jyotsana Sharma,Sumeet Gairola,Yash Pal Sharma,R.D. Gaur
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;
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111 The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts
Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad,Hossein Motamedi,Mouzhan Vafei,Ameneh Bakhtiari
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology. 2014; 7(1)
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112 In vitro antimicrobial activity and HPTLC analysis of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.
Mabel Parimala,Francis Shoba
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