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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-8  

Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass)

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Bis College of Pharmacy, Gagra, Moga, India
2 Departments of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India
3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bis College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India
4 Department of Pharmacology, Bis College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India

Date of Web Publication21-Apr-2011

Correspondence Address:
Gagan Shah
Department of Pharmacognosy, Bis College of Pharmacy, Gagra, Moga, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.79796

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Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral a, Citral b, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects.

Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus , essential oil, flavonoids, phytoconstituents

How to cite this article:
Shah G, Shri R, Panchal V, Sharma N, Singh B, Mann A S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass). J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2011;2:3-8

How to cite this URL:
Shah G, Shri R, Panchal V, Sharma N, Singh B, Mann A S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass). J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2021 Oct 26];2:3-8. Available from: https://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2011/2/1/3/79796

   Introduction Top

Cymbopogon is a genus of about 55 species, which are indigenous in tropical and semi-tropical areas of Asia and are cultivated in South and Central America, Africa and other tropical countries. These are tufted perennial C 4 grasses with numerous stiff stems arising from a short, rhizomatous rootstock, [1],[2] as with citrus flavor, and can be dried and powdered or used fresh. The name Cymbopogon is derived from the Greek words "kymbe" (boat) and "pogon" (beard), referring to the flower spike arrangement. [3]

Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is commonly used in teas, soups and curries. It is also suitable for poultry, fish and seafood.

   Ethnopharmacology Top

Cymbopogon citratus is used in various countries for various purposes, which are summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: Ethnopharmacology of Cymbopogon citratus

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   Taxonomical Classification Top

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Liliopsida

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Genus: Cymbopogon Spreng

Species: citratus

   Common Names Top

Brazil : Capim-cidrao, Capim-santo

Egypt : Lemon grass

English : Lemongrass, Citronella, Squinant

Ethiopia : Tej-sar

Hindi : Sera, Verveine

Indonesian : Sereh

Italian : Cimbopogone

Malaysia : Sakumau

Mexico : Zacate limon

Swedish : Citrongrδss

Thailand : Ta-khrai

Turkish : Limon out

USA : Citronella

   Parts Used Top

Leaves and whole plant.

   Synonym (S) Top

Lemon grass stalk, Andropogon citratus.

   Botanical Description Top

Lemongrass is equally versatile in the garden. This tropical grass grows in dense clumps that can grow to 6 ft (1.8 m) in height and about 4 ft (1.2 m) in width, with a short rhizome. [18] [Table 2] shows the morphological description of Cymbopogon citratus.
Table 2: Morphological description of Cymbopogon citrates

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   Phytochemistry Top

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus varies according to the geographical origin, the compounds as hydrocarbon terpenes, alcohols, ketones, esters and mainly aldehydes have constantly been registered. [20],[21] The essential oil (0.2-0.5%, West Indian lemon grass oil) consists of, mainly, citral. [22] Citral is a mixture of two stereoisomeric monterpene aldehydes; the trans isomer geranial (40-62%) dominates over the cis isomer neral (25-38%), [23],[24] as shown in [Table 3]. Chemical structure of the major constituents of lemongrass essential oil [Figure 1]. [29]
Table 3: Composition of essential oil in Cymbopogon citratus[25-28]

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Figure 1: Chemical structure of the major constituents of lemongrass essential oil

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Isolated and identified new triterpenoids from leaf wax are cymbopogone and cymbopogonol [Figure 2]. [30]
Figure 2: Chemical structure of cymbopogone and cymbopogonol

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Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds

Lemongrass consists of luteolin and its 6-C and 7-O-glycosides, [31] isoorientin 2'-O-rhamnoside [32] and isolation of the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin [33] from the aerial parts. The phenolic compounds elimicin, catecol, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and hydroquinone are also isolated from the plant. [34]

   Pharmacology Top

Although a lot of pharmacological investigations have been carried out based on the ingredients present, but a lot more can still be explored, exploited and utilized. A summary of the findings of these studies is presented below.

Anti-amebic Effect

The essential oil in broth culture was active on Entamoeba histolytica. [35]

Antibacterial Activity

The chromatographic fraction of the essential oil in agar plate was active on Bacillus subtilis,  Escherichia More Details coli, Staphylococus aureus[36],[37] and  Salmonella More Details paratyphi and Shigella flexneri. [38] These activities are shown in two of the three main components of the oil identified through chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. While the α-citral (geranial) and β-citral (neral) components individually elicit an antibacterial action on gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, the third component, myrcene, did not show any observable antibacterial activity on its own. [36] The extract was also active when the volatile oil extract was oxidized via the active oxygen method. [39],[40],[41],[42]

Antidiarrheal Activity

Cymbopogon citratus stalk decoction reduced the fecal output in a dose-dependent manner. [43]

Antifilarial Activity

Fresh leaves were active on Setaria digitata. [44]

Antifungal Activity

Lemon grass oil is active against such dermatophytes such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, [45] and is among the most active agents against human dermatophytes. Other studies reported that lemon grass oil is active against keratinophilic fungi, 32 ringworm fungi [46],[47] and food storage fungi. [48] Lemongrass oil is also effective as a herbicide and as an insecticide because of these naturally occurring antimicrobial effects.

Anti-inflammatory Activity

The hot water extract of the dried leaves administered intragastrically to rats was active when compared with carrageenin-induced pedal edema. [7]

Antimalarial Activity

The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were found to produce 86.6% suppression in the growth of Plsmodium berghei when compared with chloroquine (taking inhibition by chloroquine as 100%). [49]


The ethanolic extract of lemon grass extract exhibits an antimutagenic activity in various models [50],[51],[52] and retards the growth of fibrosarcoma cells transplanted in mice in association with the prevention of lung metastasis. [53] The plant extract is known to show inhibition on the formation of azoxymethane-induced DNA adducts and aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon. [54] Inhibitory effects of the plant extract on the early phase of hepatocarcinogenesis after initiation with diethylnitrosamine were seen in 344 male Fischer rats. [55]

Antimycobacterial Activity

The essential oil in agar plate was active on Mycobacterium smegaris. [56]

Antinociceptive Effect

The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus possesses a significant antinociceptive activity. Comparing the results obtained with three different experimental models of nociception (hot-plate, acetic acid-induced writhings and formalin test), we can speculate that the essential oil acts both at the peripheral and at the central levels. [57]

Antiprotozoan Activity

A dose-dependent antiprotozoan effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus could be observed on two strains of Crithida deanei. [58]

Ascaricidal Activity

The fresh leaf essential oil has an ascaricidal activity. [59]

Free Radical Scavengers and Antioxidant Effects

Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were shown to have free radical scavenging effects by measuring the bleaching of the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. [60]

Hypocholesterolemic Effect

The elevated cholesterol concentration was significantly lowered in the animals given the plant extract. This reduction was found to be dose dependent. This result shows that the extract possesses a hypocholestecolemic potential. [61]

Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects

A fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus administered in normal rats lowered the fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoprotein dose dependently while raising the plasma high-density lipoprotein level in the same dose-related fashion, but with no effect on the plasma triglyceride levels. [62]

Larvicidal Activity

The fresh leaf essential oil has a larvicidal activity. [63]

Neurobehavioral Effect

The essential oil was evaluated for sedative/hypnotic activity through pentobarbital sleeping time, anxiolytic activity by elevated plus maze and light/dark box procedures and anticonvulsant activity through seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. The essential oil was effective in increasing the sleeping time, the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as well as the time spent in the light compartment of the light/dark box. In addition, the essential oil delayed clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and blocked the tonic extensions induced by maximal electroshock, indicating the elevation of the seizure threshold and/or blockage of the seizure spread. [64]

   Marketed Formulation of the Herb Top

Lemongrass Essential Oil

As a vaporizer, the oil works as an effective panacea against bacteria, flu and colds. It has stimulating agent, tonics, aromas, diuretic and antispasmodic, and so on. People suffering from urine problems can apply lemon grass oils. In hot weather, this is the best oil to cool down the body temperature and to revive the mind and soul. In other health benefits, this is used to improve digestion, nausea and menstruation problems and ailments like headaches, muscle cramps, spasms and rheumatisms.

   Concluding Remarks and Future Potential Top

Cymbopogon citratus is native to Sri Lanka and South India, and is now widely cultivated in the tropical areas of America and Asia. The plant is used as a fragrance and flavoring agent and in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, hypotensive, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antiemetic, antitussive, antirheumatic, antiseptic and treatment for nervous and gastrointestinal disorders and fevers. The plant is also used as an antibacterial, antidiarrheal and antioxidant, but the mode of action for the different bioactivities has not been studied in detail. Cymbopogon citratus contains various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, terpenoids and essential oils, which may be responsible for the different biological activities. Hence, we can isolate some pure phytopharmaceuticals, which in turn can be used as lead molecules for synthesizing the novel agents having good therapeutic activity. With regard to the development of quality herbal medicine standardization of the extracts, phytopharmacology of different extracts, isolation and characterization of active phytopharmaceuticals, elucidation of the mechanism of action of the isolated compounds and clinical trials of the compounds are much needed. In the changing global scenario, the interest toward plants with medicinal value is increasing substantially in the primary healthcare system both in the developed and in the developing countries. Therefore, the information will help scientists and researchers to screen the compounds responsible for different bioactivities and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of action.

   References Top

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Effects of Essential Oils and Some Constituents from Ingredients of Anti-Cellulite Herbal Compress on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Rat Aortae
Ngamrayu Ngamdokmai,Tamkeen Urooj Paracha,Neti Waranuch,Krongkarn Chootip,Wudtichai Wisuitiprot,Nungruthai Suphrom,Kamonlak Insumrong,Kornkanok Ingkaninan
Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(3): 253
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6 ‘BhAVI-23’-A spice-herb based dietary infusion possessing in-vitro anti-viral potential
Sudhanshu Saxena,Sanjeev Kumar,Sachin N. Hajare,Sumit Gupta,Satyendra Gautam,Sunil K. Ghosh
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2021;
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7 Post-harvest Storage and Distillation Time of Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson Biomass Affects Essential Oil Content and Composition in the Western Himalaya
Shalika Rathore,Vinod Bhatt,Rakesh Kumar
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Ethnopharmacological survey of indigenous medicinal plants of Palampur, Himachal Pradesh in north-western Himalaya, India
Atul Arya,Suresh Kumar,Rajinder Paul,Amrita Suryavanshi,Dolly Kain,Rudra Narayan Sahoo
Advances in Traditional Medicine. 2021;
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9 Pharmacological Activities of Phytoconstituents and Essential oil obtained from Cymbopogon citratus Linn.
Prabhat Kumar Upadhyay,Prakhar Dixit,Debapriya Garabadu
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; : 4555
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Fungicidal effect of lemongrass essential oil on Candida albicans biofilm pre-established on maxillofacial silicone specimens
Shamsiahwati Mat-Rani,Natdhanai Chotprasert,Natchalee Srimaneekarn,Suwan Choonharuangdej
Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry. 2021; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Formulation Effects in the Antioxidant Activity of Extract from the Leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf
Raquel Sousa,Artur Figueirinha,Maria Teresa Batista,Maria Eugénia Pina
Molecules. 2021; 26(15): 4518
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Evaluation of the inhibitory activity of essential oils against spoilage yeasts and their potential application in yogurt
Vesna Milanovic,Riccardo Sabbatini,Cristiana Garofalo,Federica Cardinali,Marina Pasquini,Lucia Aquilanti,Andrea Osimani
International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2021; 341: 109048
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Neurobehavioral properties of Cymbopogon essential oils and its components
Karol Rojek,Anna Serefko,Ewa Poleszak,Aleksandra Szopa,Andrzej Wróbel,Malgorzata Guz,Jianbo Xiao,Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak
Phytochemistry Reviews. 2021;
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14 Negative Impact of Citral on Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Antibiotics
Alexandre Tetard,Sarah Foley,Gaëtan L. A. Mislin,Jean-Michel Brunel,Estefania Oliva,Freddy Torrealba Anzola,Andy Zedet,Bruno Cardey,Yann Pellequer,Christophe Ramseyer,Patrick Plésiat,Catherine Llanes
Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021; 12
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15 Essential Oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., and the phyto-compounds, delta-carene and alpha-pinene mediate cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Anil Kumar,Kamal Dev,Anuradha Sourirajan
South African Journal of Botany. 2021; 141: 296
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16 Therapeutic benefits of natural oils along with permeation enhancing activity
Kesrin Amra,Munira Momin,Neha Desai,Fateh Khan
International Journal of Dermatology. 2021;
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17 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil From Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud.) Stapf Flowers
Paula V.D. Spencer,Silvia H. Libardi,Fernanda F.G. Dias,Wellington da S. Oliveira,Ronaldo L. Thomasini,Helena T. Godoy,Daniel R. Cardoso,Stanislau Bogusz Junior
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2021; : 1
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18 Chemical compositions and insecticidal efficacies of four aromatic essential oils on rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae L
Mayanglambam Alina Devi,Bunindro Nameirakpam,Thiyam Bidyababy Devi,Saini Mayanglambam,Kabrambam Dasanta Singh,Sonia Sougrakpam,Shamurailatpam Shadia,Marjit Tongbram,Saikhom David Singh,Dinabandhu Sahoo,Yallappa Rajashekar
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2020;
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19 Natural compounds play therapeutic roles in various human pathologies via regulating Endoplasmic Reticulum pathway
Run-Hui Ma,Zhi-Jing Ni,Kiran Thakur,Fan Zhang,Yuan-Yuan Zhang,Jian-Guo Zhang,Zhao-Jun Wei
Medicine in Drug Discovery. 2020; : 100065
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20 Antimicrobial activities and mechanism of action of Cymbopogon khasianus (Munro ex Hackel) Bor essential oil
Gurpreet Singh,Meenu Katoch
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 2020; 20(1)
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21 Green extraction of ethnomedicinal compounds from Cymbopogon citratus Stapf using hydrogen-bonded supramolecular network
Zubera Naseem,Muhammad Zahid,Muhammad Asif Hanif,Muhammad Shahid
Separation Science and Technology. 2020; : 1
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22 The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application
Sachiko Koyama,Thomas Heinbockel
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(5): 1558
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Bebida funcional a base de pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) y extractos de hierba luisa (Cymbopogon citratus) y albahaca (Ocimum tenuiflorum)
Julio Daniel Castro Carranza,Luiggii Ricardo Vera Rodríguez,Carlos Alfredo Cedeño Palacios,Alex Alberto Dueñas Rivadeneira
Revista Tecnica De La Facultad De Ingenieria Universidad Del Zulia. 2020; ve2020(2): 90
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24 Development and characterisation of gelatine/palm wax/lemongrass essential oil (GPL)-coated paper for active food packaging
Sahid Nurul Syahida,Zuriyati M.A. Ainun,Mohammad R. Ismail-Fitry,Zainal A. Nur Hanani
Packaging Technology and Science. 2020;
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25 Evaluation and utilization of lemongrass oil nanoemulsion for disinfection of documentary heritage based on parchment
Nagah S. Saada,G. Abdel-Maksoud,M.S. Abd El-Aziz,A.M. Youssef
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2020; : 101839
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26 Canine and feline vector-borne diseases of zoonotic concern in Southeast Asia
Viet-Linh Nguyen,Filipe Dantas-Torres,Domenico Otranto
Current Research in Parasitology and Vector-Borne Diseases. 2020; : 100001
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27 Phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus extract for application as natural antioxidant in fresh sausage
Caroline Pagnossim Boeira,Natiéli Piovesan,Déborah Cristina Barcelos Flores,Marcela Bromberger Soquetta,Bruna Nichelle Lucas,Rosane Teresinha Heck,Jamila dos Santos Alves,Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol,Daniel dos Santos,Erico Marlon Moraes Flores,Claudia Severo da Rosa,Nelcindo Nascimento Terra
Food Chemistry. 2020; 319: 126553
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28 In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of six Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans
Nigus Zegeye Gishen,Solomon Taddese,Tizazu Zenebe,Kassahun Dires,Kassahun AbebeTedla,Berhan Mengiste,Demissew Shenkute,Alemnesh Tesema,Yoseph Shiferaw,Ermias Luelekal
European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2020; : 101121
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29 Effect of adding different levels of lemon grass leaves (Cymbopogon citratus) to the diet or its extract into drinking water on some blood parameters for broiler chickens (Ross 308)
Dheyaa Hmazah Yasir Al-Awadi,Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali Al-Nadawi
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020; 1664: 012114
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Diseases of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) in China: Curvularia nanningensis sp. nov.
Qian Zhang,Zai-Fu Yang,Wei Cheng,Nalin N. Wijayawardene,Kevin D. Hyde,Zhuo Chen,Yong Wang
MycoKeys. 2020; 63: 49
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31 Multifunctional Finishing of Woolens with Lemongrass Oil
Munmee Gogoi,Vinod Kadam,Seiko Jose,DB Shakyawar,Binita Kalita
Journal of Natural Fibers. 2020; : 1
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32 Antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon citratus against clinically important bacteria
Geetha Subramaniam,Xin Ying Yew,Lalita Ambigai Sivasamugham
South African Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2020;
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33 Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of some essential oils against multidrug resistant bacteria
Nait Irahal Imane,Hmimid Fouzia,Lahlou Fatima azzahra,Errami Ahmed,Guenaou Ismail,Diawara Idrissa,Kettani-Halabi Mohamed,Fahde Sirine,Ouafik L’Houcine,Bourhim Noureddine
European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2020; : 101074
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34 Hydrodistillation and antimicrobial properties of lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus , Stapf): An undergraduate laboratory exercise bridging chemistry and microbiology
Manchuta Dangkulwanich,Tumnoon Charaslertrangsi
Journal of Food Science Education. 2020;
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R. Mangala Devi,R. Sarojini,S. Vasanth
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36 Comparative Analysis of In-Vitro Biological Activities of Methyl Eugenol Rich Cymbopogon khasianus Hack., Leaf Essential Oil with Pure Methyl Eugenol Compound
Roktim Gogoi,Rikraj Loying,Neelav Sarma,Twahira Begum,Sudin K. Pandey,Mohan Lal
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2020; 21(10): 927
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37 Use of Essential Oils in Veterinary Medicine to Combat Bacterial and Fungal Infections
Valentina Virginia Ebani,Francesca Mancianti
Veterinary Sciences. 2020; 7(4): 193
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38 UPLC-Orbitrap HRMS metabolic profiling of Cymbopogon citratus cultivated in Egypt; neuroprotective effect against AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity in rats
Yasmine F. Madi,Mouchira A. Choucry,Salma A. El-Marasy,Meselhy R. Meselhy,El-Sayeda A. El-Kashoury
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020;
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39 Impact of gelatin, lemongrass oil and peppermint oil on storability and fruit quality of Samany date palm under cold storage
S. F. EL-Gioushy,M. H. M. Baiea
Bulletin of the National Research Centre. 2020; 44(1)
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40 Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of lemon, sweet, and cereal grasses
Maria Sielicka-Rózynska,Daniela Gwiazdowska
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2020;
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41 Pharmacognostic characteristics and phytochemical profile of various parts of Parthenium hysterophorus
Ghazala Begum,Ghulam Dastagir,Abdur Rauf,Saud Bawazeer,Khaliq Ur Rahman,Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali. 2020;
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42 Vascular activity of infusion and fractions of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. in human arteries
Daniela M. Simões,Jéssica Malheiros,Pedro E. Antunes,Artur Figueirinha,Maria Dulce Cotrim,Diogo A. Fonseca
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020; 258: 112947
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43 Lemongrass essential oil in sugarcane silage: fermentative profile, losses, chemical composition, and aerobic stability
Roberto Cantoia Júnior,Estéfani Capucho,Tainá M. Garcia,Tiago A. Del Valle,Mariana Campana,Elissandra M.C. Zilio,Eduardo B. Azevedo,Jozivaldo P.G. Morais
Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2019; : 114371
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44 Citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol with promising pharmacological activities - A systematic review
Priscila L. Santos,João Pedro S.C.F. Matos,Laurent Picot,Jackson R.G.S. Almeida,Jullyana S.S. Quintans,Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2019; 123: 459
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45 Effect of in vitro digestion on the total polyphenol and flavonoid, antioxidant activity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes inhibitory potential of selected functional plant-based foods
Zhi Xiang Ng,Ann Na See
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2019; : e13903
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46 Grasses in South African traditional medicine: A review of their biological activities and phytochemical content
F. Gebashe,A.O. Aremu,J.F. Finnie,J. Van Staden
South African Journal of Botany. 2019;
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47 Analytical Investigation of Cymbopogon citratus and Exploiting the Potential of Developed Silver Nanoparticle Against the Dominating Species of Pathogenic Bacteria
Priyanka Basera,Meeta Lavania,Anil Agnihotri,Banwari Lal
Frontiers in Microbiology. 2019; 10
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48 Effect of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Essential Oil on the Survival of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in Contaminated Poultry Drinking Water1
C Peichel,D V T Nair,G Dewi,A M Donoghue,K M Reed,A Kollanoor Johny
The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 2019;
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49 Fabrication of a cost-effective lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) membrane with antibacterial activity for dye removal
Zengxiao Cai,Rechana Remadevi,Md Abdullah Al Faruque,Mohan Setty,Linpeng Fan,Abu Naser Md Ahsanul Haque,Maryam Naebe
RSC Advances. 2019; 9(58): 34076
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50 Botanicals Against Tetranychus urticae Koch Under Laboratory Conditions: A Survey of Alternatives for Controlling Pest Mites
Ricardo A. Rincón,Daniel Rodríguez,Ericsson Coy-Barrera
Plants. 2019; 8(8): 272
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51 PLGA nanoparticles optimized by Box-Behnken for efficient encapsulation of therapeutic Cymbopogon citratus essential oil
Kessiane B. Almeida,Aline S. Ramos,Júlia B.B. Nunes,Bianca O. Silva,Elisa R.A. Ferraz,Andreia S. Fernandes,Israel Felzenszwalb,Ana Claudia F. Amaral,V. Gaëlle Roullin,Deborah Q. Falcão
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2019;
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52 Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Cymbopogon citratus: A review
Oluwole Oladeji,Funmilayo Adelowo,Kehinde Odelade,David Ayodele,Deborah Bankole,Christina Oladipo
Scientific African. 2019; : e00137
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53 Antimicrobial Action of Hydroalcoholic Extract from Cymbopogonous citrus Staupf (capim-limão), Rosmarinus officinalis L (alecrim) and Lychnophora ericoides (arnica)
Ana Carolina Vilela,Solange Aparecida de Oliveira Neves
Journal of Health Sciences. 2019; 21(4): 429
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54 Bioactive Compounds of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil from different parts of the plant and distillation methods as natural antioxidant in broiler meat
E S Hartatie,I Prihartini,W Widodo,A Wahyudi
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019; 532: 012018
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55 The Antiviral Effect of Indonesian Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Dengue Virus In Vitro and In Silico
Rosmalena Rosmalena,Berna Elya,Beti E. Dewi,Fithriyah Fithriyah,Hidayati Desti,Marissa Angelina,Muhammad Hanafi,Puspa D. Lotulung,Vivitri D. Prasasty,Dimas Seto
Pathogens. 2019; 8(2): 85
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56 Evaluation of lemongrass and ginger essential oils to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes in biofilms
Fernanda Barbosa Reis-Teixeira,Ingrid Pontes Sousa,Virgínia Farias Alves,Niege Araçari Jacometti Cardoso Furtado,Elaine Cristina Pereira De Martinis
Journal of Food Safety. 2019; : e12627
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57 Flavanones from Sorghum bicolor selectively inhibit COX-2: in-silico and in-vivo validation
O. Adeboye Akinloye,D. Samuel Metibemu,D. Ibukun Akinloye,S. Bamidele Onigbinde,I. Abigail Olaosebikan,Ogunnowo Florence,Bashorun Damilola,O. Adeola Bolarinwa,Olaromilorun Olubunmi
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. 2019; 20(1)
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58 Ethnomedicinal plant species commonly used to manage arthritis in North-West Nigeria
T. Salihu,J.O. Olukunle,O.T. Adenubi,C. Mbaoji,M.H. Zarma
South African Journal of Botany. 2018; 118: 33
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59 Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Sixteen Essential Oils against Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus Isolated from Poultry
Valentina Ebani,Basma Najar,Fabrizio Bertelloni,Luisa Pistelli,Francesca Mancianti,Simona Nardoni
Veterinary Sciences. 2018; 5(3): 62
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60 Lemongrass (Cymbopogon): a review on its structure, properties, applications and recent developments
Abu Naser Md Ahsanul Haque,Rechana Remadevi,Maryam Naebe
Cellulose. 2018;
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61 Lemon Grass Tea Enhanced Memory Function and Attenuated Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia in Mice Via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Acetyl-Cholinesterase Activity
Solomon Umukoro,Adeyinka Habeeb Adeola,Benneth Ben-Azu,Abayomi M. Ajayi
Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants. 2018; 24(4): 407
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62 Antituberculosis activity, phytochemical identification of Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm., Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf., and Tabernaemontana coronaria (L.) Willd. and their effects on the growth kinetics and cellular integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
Suriyati Mohamad,Nur Najihah Ismail,Thaigarajan Parumasivam,Pazilah Ibrahim,Hasnah Osman,Habibah A. Wahab
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018; 18(1)
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63 Insecticidal activity of two formulations of essential oils against the cereal leaf beetle
Jirí Skuhrovec,Ondrej Douda,Miloslav Zouhar,Marie Manasová,Pavel Nový,Matej Božik,Pavel Kloucek
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B — Soil & Plant Science. 2018; : 1
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64 Chemical analysis and giardicidal effectiveness of the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf
Eman M. H. Méabed,Alaa I. B. Abou-Sreea,Mohamed H. H. Roby
Parasitology Research. 2018;
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65 An overview of anti-diabetic plants used in Gabon: Pharmacology and Toxicology
B. Bading Taika,M. Bouckandou,A. Souza,H.P. Bourobou Bourobou,L. MacKenzie,L. Lione
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2018;
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66 The evaluation of plant extracts, biocontrol agents and hot water as seed treatments to control black rot of rape in South Africa
G. Mandiriza,Q. Kritzinger,T.A.S. Aveling
Crop Protection. 2018; 114: 129
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67 Potential antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon citratus on OxLDL and H 2 O 2 LDL induced Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC)
Jamuna S.,Sakeena Sadullah M.S.,Ashokkumar R.,Gokul Shanmuganathan,Senguttuvan Sivan Mozhi,Niranjali Devaraj S.
Food Science and Human Wellness. 2017;
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68 Prophetic medicine as potential functional food elements in the intervention of cancer: A review
Bassem Y. Sheikh,Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker,Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin,Amin Ismail
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 95: 614
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69 Traditional Medicines and Kidney Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Opportunities and Challenges
John W. Stanifer,Kajiru Kilonzo,Daphne Wang,Guobin Su,Wei Mao,Lei Zhang,La Zhang,Shobhana Nayak-Rao,J. Jaime Miranda
Seminars in Nephrology. 2017; 37(3): 245
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70 Microbial biofilm prevention on wound dressing by nanobiocoating using magnetosomes-coupled lemon grass extract
Theerthagiri Revathy,Jobin John Jacob,Mangalam Achuthananada Jayasri,Krishnamurthy Suthindhiran
IET Nanobiotechnology. 2017; 11(6): 738
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71 Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi
Albert Kimutai,Moses Ngeiywa,Margaret Mulaa,Peter G. N. Njagi,Johnstone Ingonga,Lydia B. Nyamwamu,Cyprian Ombati,Philip Ngumbi
BMC Research Notes. 2017; 10(1)
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72 Inventory and ethnobotanical assessment of plant species in Lagos State University, Ojo campus, Lagos, Nigeria
Abosede A. Adu,Olubunmi J. Sharaibi,Olutoyin J. Aderinola
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development. 2017; 1(1): 6
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73 Medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity
Ravindra M Samarth,Meenakshi Samarth,Yoshihisa Matsumoto
Future Science OA. 2017; : FSO247
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74 Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) Control Potential of Essential Oil Isolated from Iranian Cymbopogon citratus Stapf
Asgar Ebadollahi,Jafar Geranmayeh,Morteza Kamrani
Natural Product Sciences. 2017; 23(4): 235
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75 Antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects of citral via p53 and ROS-induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal HCT116 and HT29 cell lines
Bassem Y. Sheikh,Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker,Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin,Gokula Mohan
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 96: 834
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76 The effect of Cymbopogon citratus aqueous leaf extract on Solanum lycopersicum seed germination and seedling growth under saline conditions
Taofik Sunmonu,Aishat Mohammed Naibi,Suaib Osineye,Hussein Oloyede
South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 2017; : 1
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77 A novel ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative as a stabilizer of nanoemulsions. Improvement of antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil
Maria Cristina Bonferoni,Giuseppina Sandri,Silvia Rossi,Donatella Usai,Ioannis Liakos,Alice Garzoni,Maura Fiamma,Stefania Zanetti,Athanassia Athanassiou,Carla Caramella,Franca Ferrari
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2017;
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78 Green synthesis, characterization and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from alkalinized Cymbopogon citratus Stapf
Emmanuel Ajayi,Anthony Afolayan
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2017; 8(1): 015017
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79 Polylactic Acid—Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties
Ioannis Liakos,Alexandru Grumezescu,Alina Holban,Iordache Florin,Francesca D’Autilia,Riccardo Carzino,Paolo Bianchini,Athanassia Athanassiou
Pharmaceuticals. 2016; 9(3): 42
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80 Green roofs: what can we learn from desert plants?
Inga Dirks,Buzi Raviv,Oren Shelef,Amber Hill,Amir Eppel,Moses Kwame Aidoo,Brian Hoefgen,Tal Rapaport,Hila Gil,Endale Geta,Amnon Kochavi,Itay Cohen,Shimon Rachmilevitch
Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution. 2016; 62(1-2): 58
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81 Brain Wave Control Effect of Smart-wave via Docking into the Odorant-binding Protein
Dong-Chan Kim
Journal of Life Science. 2016; 26(3): 346
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82 Effect of feeding dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves on growth performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler during the finisher phase
M. H. Alzawqari,A. A. Al-Baddany,H. H. Al-Baadani,I. A. Alhidary,Rifat Ullah Khan,G. M. Aqil,A. Abdurab
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016;
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83 A comparative ethnopharmacological analysis of traditional medicine used against respiratory tract diseases in Mauritius
Shanoo Suroowan,M. Fawzi Mahomoodally
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016; 177: 61
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84 Toxicological effects of pet food ingredients on canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and enterocyte-like cells
M. T. Ortega,B. Jeffery,J. E. Riviere,N. A. Monteiro-Riviere
Journal of Applied Toxicology. 2016; 36(2): 189
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85 Polyphenols from Cymbopogon citratus leaves as topical anti-inflammatory agents
Gustavo Costa,João Pinto Ferreira,Carla Vitorino,Maria Eugénia Pina,João José Sousa,Isabel Vitória Figueiredo,Maria Teresa Batista
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016; 178: 222
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86 Mexican medicinal plants with anxiolytic or antidepressant activity: Focus on preclinical research
Carolina López-Rubalcava,Erika Estrada-Camarena
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;
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87 Ethnopharmacological appraisal of culturally important medicinal plants and polyherbal formulas used against communicable diseases in Rodrigues Island
Anne Kathie Samoisy,Fawzi Mahomoodally
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;
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88 Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly
Zeneida Teixeira Pinto,Félix Fernández Sánchez,Arith Ramos dos Santos,Ana Claudia Fernandes Amaral,José Luiz Pinto Ferreira,Julio César Escalona-Arranz,Margareth Maria de Carvalho Queiroz
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 2015; 24(1): 36
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89 Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity
Gustavo Costa,Susana González-Manzano,Ana González-Paramás,Isabel Vitória Figueiredo,Celestino Santos-Buelga,Maria Teresa Batista
Food Funct.. 2015; 6(3): 932
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90 The Potential Application of <i>Syzygium aromaticum</i> and <i>Cymbopogon citratus</i> Essential Oils as Natural Preservatives of Beef Patties
Fabrice Bruno Siewe,Pierre Désiré Mbougueng,Léopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu,Thierry Ngangmou Noumo,Carl M. F. Mbofung
Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2015; 06(03): 374
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91 Formulation of essential oil-loaded chitosan–alginate nanocapsules
Dheebika Natrajan,Sharmila Srinivasan,K. Sundar,Aswathy Ravindran
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2015;
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92 Cellular Effect of Curcumin and Citral Combination on Breast Cancer Cells: Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest
Pinaki B. Patel,Vasudev R. Thakkar,Jagdish S. Patel
Journal of Breast Cancer. 2015; 18(3): 225
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93 Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts
Ahmed A. Tayel,Heba Hussein,Noha M. Sorour,Wael F. El-Tras
Journal of Food Science. 2015; 80(12): M2886
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94 Use ofCymbopogon CitratusEssential Oil in Food Preservation: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives
Christopher E. Ekpenyong,Ernest E. Akpan
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015; : 00
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95 Determination of Chemical Compositions of Cymbopogon citratus Leaves by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Method
A.J. Uraku
Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2015; 9(4): 175
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96 Hydro-methanol leaf extract of lemon grass is friendly with the histology of albino Wistar ratsæ kidneys
ChikwuogwoW Paul,NerveyW Dare
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy. 2015; 14(2): 76
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97 Validation of a RP-HPLC Method for Quantitation of Phenolic Compounds in three Different Extracts from Cymbopogon citratus
Gustavo Costa,Fatima Nunes,Carla Vitorino,Joao Jose Sousa,Isabel Vitoria Figueiredo,Maria Teresa Batista
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 2015; 9(7): 331
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98 Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the community of Sobradinho, Lus Correia, Piau, Brazil
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2015; 9(32): 872
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99 Traditional medicine practices among community members with chronic kidney disease in northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey
John W. Stanifer,Joseph Lunyera,David Boyd,Francis Karia,Venance Maro,Justin Omolo,Uptal D. Patel
BMC Nephrology. 2015; 16(1)
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100 Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model
Paul Désiré Dzeufiet,Amélie Mogueo,Danielle Bilanda,Bibi-Farouck Aboubakar,Léonard Tédong,Théophile Dimo,Pierre Kamtchouing
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014; 14(1): 507
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101 Trace and Essential Elements Analysis inCymbopogon citratus(DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern
Jasha Momo H. Anal
Journal of Toxicology. 2014; 2014: 1
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102 Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
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Fungal Biology. 2014;
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103 Chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of luteolin glycosides isolated from lemongrass
Vera Francisco,Artur Figueirinha,Gustavo Costa,Joana Liberal,Maria Celeste Lopes,Carmen García-Rodríguez,Carlos F.G.C. Geraldes,Maria T. Cruz,Maria T. Batista
Journal of Functional Foods. 2014; 10: 436
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104 Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for pregnant women?s health conditions in Menoua division-West Cameroon
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105 Utilisation of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) as biosorbent for the sequestration of nickel ions from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamics and mechanism studies
L.Y. Lee,X.J. Lee,P.C. Chia,K.W. Tan,S. Gan
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106 Antioxidant and radio-protective activities of lemon grass and star anise extracts
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107 Ethnopharmacological analysis of medicinal plants and animals used in the treatment and management of pain in Mauritius
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108 Polysaccharides fromCymbopogon citratuswith antitumor and immunomodulatory activity
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109 Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits
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110 Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Aminoglycosides and Modulating the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
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111 A Quantitative Ethnopharmacological Documentation of Natural Pharmacological Agents Used by Pediatric Patients in Mauritius
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112 Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves infusion via proteasome and nuclear factor-κB pathway inhibition: Contribution of chlorogenic acid
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Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013; 148(1): 126-134
113 Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves infusion via proteasome and nuclear factor-?B pathway inhibition: Contribution of chlorogenic acid
Vera Francisco,Gustavo Costa,Artur Figueirinha,Carla Marques,Paulo Pereira,Bruno Miguel Neves,Maria Celeste Lopes,Carmen García-Rodríguez,Maria Teresa Cruz,Maria Teresa Batista
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013; 148(1): 126
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114 Effects of Cymbopogon citratus and Ferula assa-foetida extracts on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity
Ghazaleh S. Tayeboon,Fatemeh Tavakoli,Shokoufeh Hassani,Mahnaz Khanavi,Omid Sabzevari,S. Nasser Ostad
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal. 2013; 49(9): 706
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115 Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells
Li Yuan,Jing Wang,Haifang Xiao,Chunxia Xiao,Yutang Wang,Xuebo Liu
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2012; 265(1): 83
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116 Surface Decontamination and Quality Enhancement in Meat Steaks Using Plant Extracts as Natural Biopreservatives
Ahmed A. Tayel,Wael F. El-Tras,Shaaban H. Moussa,Sabha M. El-Sabbagh
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2012; 9(8): 755
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117 Antimicrobial activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus(DC) Stapf.) essential oil against food-borne pathogens added to cream-filled cakes and pastries
Mahdi Vazirian,Somayeh Taheri Kashani,Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani,Mahnaz Khanavi,Hossein Jamalifar,Mohammad Reza Fazeli,Abolfazl Najarian Toosi
Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2012; 24(6): 579
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118 Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives
Tayel, A.A. and El-Tras, W.F. and Moussa, S.H. and El-Sabbagh, S.M.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2012; 9(8): 755-761
119 Determination of antibacterial activity of vacuum distillation fractions of lemongrass essential oil
Manuel A. Falcão,Ana L. B. Fianco,Aline M. Lucas,Marcos A. A. Pereira,Fernando C. Torres,Rubem M. F. Vargas,Eduardo Cassel
Phytochemistry Reviews. 2012; 11(4): 405
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120 Antimicrobial activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf.) essential oil against food-borne pathogens added to cream-filled cakes and pastries
Vazirian M, Kashani ST, Ardekani MR, Khanavi M, Jamalifar H, Fazeli MR, Toosi AN.
Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2012; 24(6): 579-582
121 Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells
Yuan L, Wang J, Xiao H, Xiao C, Wang Y, Liu X.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2012; 265(1): 83-92
122 Determination of antibacterial activity of vacuum distillation fractions of lemongrass essential oil
Falcão MA, Fianco AL, Lucas AM, Pereira MA, Torres FC, Vargas RM, Cassel E.
Phytochemistry Reviews. 2012; 11(4): 405-412
123 Effects of Cymbopogon citratus leaf and Zingiber officinale rhizome supplementation on growth performance, ileal morphology and lactic acid concentration in broilers
Thayalini, K., Shanmugavelu, S., Saminathan, P.M., Siti Masidayu, M.S., Nor Idayusni, Y., Zainuddin, H., Nurul Akmal, C.A., Wong, H.K.
Mal. J. Anim. Sci. 2011; 14: 43-49


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