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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 374-380  

Niosome: A future of targeted drug delivery systems

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700 032, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication3-Feb-2011

Correspondence Address:
Ketousetuo Kuotsu
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700 032, West Bengal, Kolkata
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0110-5558.76435

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Over the past several years, treatment of infectious diseases and immunisation has undergone a revolutionary shift. With the advancement of biotechnology and genetic engineering, not only a large number of disease-specific biological have been developed, but also emphasis has been made to effectively deliver these biologicals. Niosomes are vesicles composed of non-ionic surfactants, which are biodegradable, relatively nontoxic, more stable and inexpensive, an alternative to liposomes. This article reviews the current deepening and widening of interest of niosomes in many scientific disciplines and, particularly its application in medicine. This article also presents an overview of the techniques of preparation of niosome, types of niosomes, characterisation and their applications.

Keywords: Bilayer, drug entrapment, lamellar, niosomes, surfactants

How to cite this article:
Karim KM, Mandal AS, Biswas N, Guha A, Chatterjee S, Behera M, Kuotsu K. Niosome: A future of targeted drug delivery systems. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010;1:374-80

How to cite this URL:
Karim KM, Mandal AS, Biswas N, Guha A, Chatterjee S, Behera M, Kuotsu K. Niosome: A future of targeted drug delivery systems. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2010 [cited 2023 Mar 29];1:374-80. Available from: https://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2010/1/4/374/76435

   Introduction Top

The concept of targeted drug delivery is designed for attempting to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the medication in the remaining tissues. As a result, drug is localised on the targeted site. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localisation of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Different carriers have been used for targeting of drug, such as immunoglobulin, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, liposome, microspheres, erythrocytes and niosomes. [1]

Niosomes are one of the best among these carriers. The self-assembly of non-ionic surfactants into vesicles was first reported in the 70s by researchers in the cosmetic industry. Niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles) obtained on hydration are microscopic lamellar structures formed upon combining non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class with cholesterol. [2] The non-ionic surfactants form a closed bilayer vesicle in aqueous media based on its amphiphilic nature using some energy for instance heat, physical agitation to form this structure. In the bilayer structure, hydrophobic parts are oriented away from the aqueous solvent, whereas the hydrophilic heads remain in contact with the aqueous solvent. The properties of the vesicles can be changed by varying the composition of the vesicles, size, lamellarity, tapped volume, surface charge and concentration. Various forces act inside the vesicle, eg, van der Waals forces among surfactant molecules, repulsive forces emerging from the electrostatic interactions among charged groups of surfactant molecules, entropic repulsive forces of the head groups of surfactants, short-acting repulsive forces, etc. These forces are responsible for maintaining the vesicular structure of niosomes. But, the stability of niosomes are affected by type of surfactant, nature of encapsulated drug, storage temperature, detergents, use of membrane spanning lipids, the interfacial polymerisation of surfactant monomers in situ, inclusion of charged molecule. Due to presence of hydrophilic, amphiphilic and lipophilic moieties in the structure, these can accommodate drug molecules with a wide range of solubility. [3] These may act as a depot, releasing the drug in a controlled manner. The therapeutic performance of the drug molecules can also be improved by delayed clearance from the circulation, protecting the drug from biological environment and restricting effects to target cells. [4] Noisome made of alpha , omega-hexadecyl-bis-(1-aza-18-crown-6) (Bola-surfactant)-Span 80-cholesterol (2:3:1 molar ratio) is named as Bola-Surfactant containing noisome. [5] The surfactants used in niosome preparation should be biodegradable, biocompatible and non-immunogenic. A dry product known as proniosomes may be hydrated immediately before use to yield aqueous niosome dispersions. The problems of niosomes such as aggregation, fusion and leaking, and provide additional convenience in transportation, distribution, storage, and dosing. [6]

Niosomes behave in vivo like liposomes, prolonging the circulation of entrapped drug and altering its organ distribution and metabolic stability. [7] As with liposomes, the properties of niosomes depend on the composition of the bilayer as well as method of their production. It is reported that the intercalation of cholesterol in the bilayers decreases the entrapment volume during formulation, and thus entrapment efficiency. [8]

However, differences in characteristics exist between liposomes and niosomes, especially since niosomes are prepared from uncharged single-chain surfactant and cholesterol, whereas liposomes are prepared from double-chain phospholipids (neutral or charged). The concentration of cholesterol in liposomes is much more than that in niosomes. As a result, drug entrapment efficiency of liposomes becomes lesser than niosomes. Besides, liposomes are expensive, and its ingredients, such as phospholipids, are chemically unstable because of their predisposition to oxidative degradation; moreover, these require special storage and handling and purity of natural phospholipids is variable.

Niosomal drug delivery is potentially applicable to many pharmacological agents for their action against various diseases. It can also be used as vehicle for poorly absorbable drugs to design the novel drug delivery system. It enhances the bioavailability by crossing the anatomical barrier of gastrointestinal tract via transcytosis of M cells of Peyer's patches in the intestinal lymphatic tissues. [9] The niosomal vesicles are taken up by reticulo-endothelial system. Such localised drug accumulation is used in treatment of diseases, such as leishmaniasis, in which parasites invade cells of liver and spleen. [10],[11] Some non-reticulo-endothelial systems like immunoglobulins also recognise lipid surface of this delivery system. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[10],[11],[12] Encapsulation of various anti-neoplastic agents in this carrier vesicle has minimised drug-induced toxic side effects while maintaining, or in some instances, increasing the anti-tumour efficacy. [13] Doxorubicin, the anthracycline antibiotic with broad-spectrum anti-tumour activity, shows a dose-dependent irreversible cardio-toxic effect. [14],[15] Niosomal delivery of this drug to mice bearing S-180 tumour increased their life span and decreased the rate of proliferation of sarcoma. Intravenous administration of methotrexate entrapped in niosomes to S-180 tumour bearing mice resulted in total regression of tumour and also higher plasma level and slower elimination. It has good control over the release rate of drug, particularly for treating brain malignant cancer. [16] Niosomes have been used for studying the nature of the immune response provoked by antigens. [17] Niosomes can be used as a carrier for haemoglobin. [18],[19] Vesicles are permeable to oxygen and haemoglobin dissociation curve can be modified similarly to non-encapsulated haemoglobin. Slow penetration of drug through skin is the major drawback of transdermal route of delivery. [20] Certain anti-inflammatory drugs like flurbiprofen and piroxicam and sex hormones like estradiol and levonorgestrel are frequently administered through niosome via transdermal route to improve the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. This vesicular system also provides better drug concentration at the site of action administered by oral, parenteral and topical routes. Sustained release action of niosomes can be applied to drugs with low therapeutic index and low water solubility. Drug delivery through niosomes is one of the approaches to achieve localised drug action in regard to their size and low penetrability through epithelium and connective tissue, which keeps the drug localised at the site of administration. Localised drug action enhances efficacy of potency of the drug and, at the same time, reduces its systemic toxic effects, eg, antimonials encapsulated within niosomes are taken up by mononuclear cells, resulting in localisation of drug, increase in potency, and hence decrease in dose as well as toxicity. [13] The evolution of niosomal drug delivery technology is still at the stage of infancy, but this type of drug delivery system has shown promise in cancer chemotherapy and anti-leishmanial therapy.

   Various Types of Niosome Top

Based on the vesicle size, niosomes can be divided into three groups. These are small unilamellar vesicles (SUV, size=0.025-0.05 μm), multilamellar vesicles (MLV, size=>0.05 μm), and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV, size=>0.10 μm).

Methods of Preparation

Niosomes are prepared by different methods based on the sizes of the vesicles and their distribution, number of double layers, entrapment efficiency of the aqueous phase and permeability of vesicle membrane.

Preparation of small unilamellar vesicles


The aqueous phase containing drug is added to the mixture of surfactant and cholesterol in a scintillation vial. [11] The mixture is homogenised using a sonic probe at 60°C for 3 minutes. The vesicles are small and uniform in size.

Micro fluidisation

Two fluidised streams move forward through precisely defined micro channel and interact at ultra-high velocities within the interaction chamber. [21] Here, a common gateway is arranged such that the energy supplied to the system remains within the area of niosomes formation. The result is a greater uniformity, smaller size and better reproducibility.

Preparation of multilamellar vesicles

Hand shaking method (Thin film hydration technique)

In the hand shaking method, surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in a volatile organic solvent such as diethyl ether, chloroform or methanol in a rotary evaporator, leaving a thin layer of solid mixture deposited on the wall of the flask. [11] The dried layer is hydrated with aqueous phase containing drug at normal temperature with gentle agitation.

Trans-membrane pH gradient (inside acidic) drug uptake process (remote Loading)

Surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in chloroform. [22] The solvent is then evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain a thin film on the wall of the round-bottom flask. The film is hydrated with 300 mM citric acid (pH 4.0) by vortex mixing. The multilamellar vesicles are frozen and thawed three times and later sonicated. To this niosomal suspension, aqueous solution containing 10 mg/ml of drug is added and vortexed. The pH of the sample is then raised to 7.0-7.2 with 1M disodium phosphate. This mixture is later heated at 60°C for 10 minutes to produce the desired multilamellar vesicles.

Preparation of large unilamellar vesicles

Reverse phase evaporation technique (REV)

In this method, cholesterol and surfactant are dissolved in a mixture of ether and chloroform. [23] An aqueous phase containing drug is added to this and the resulting two phases are sonicated at 4-5°C. The clear gel formed is further sonicated after the addition of a small amount of phosphate buffered saline. The organic phase is removed at 40°C under low pressure. The resulting viscous niosome suspension is diluted with phosphate-buffered saline and heated in a water bath at 60°C for 10 min to yield niosomes.

Ether injection method

The ether injection method is essentially based on slow injection of niosomal ingredients in ether through a 14-gauge needle at the rate of approximately 0.25 ml/min into a preheated aqueous phase maintained at 60°C. [11],[24] The probable reason behind the formation of larger unilamellar vesicles is that the slow vapourisation of solvent results in an ether gradient extending towards the interface of aqueous-nonaqueous interface. The former may be responsible for the formation of the bilayer structure. The disadvantages of this method are that a small amount of ether is frequently present in the vesicles suspension and is difficult to remove.


Multiple membrane extrusion method

A mixture of surfactant, cholesterol, and diacetyl phosphate in chloroform is made into thin film by evaporation. [20] The film is hydrated with aqueous drug solution and the resultant suspension extruded through polycarbonate membranes, which are placed in a series for up to eight passages. This is a good method for controlling niosome size.

Niosome preparation using polyoxyethylene alkyl ether

The size and number of bilayer of vesicles consisting of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether and cholesterol can be changed using an alternative method. [25] Temperature rise above 60°C transforms small unilamellar vesicles to large multilamellar vesicles (>1 μm), while vigorous shaking at room temperature shows the opposite effect, ie, transformation of multilamellar vesicles into unilamellar ones. The transformation from unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles at higher temperature might be the characteristic for polyoxyethylene alkyl ether (ester) surfactant, since it is known that polyethylene glycol (PEG) and water remix at higher temperature due to breakdown of hydrogen bonds between water and PEG moieties. Generally, free drug is removed from the encapsulated drug by gel permeation chromatography dialysis method or centrifugation method. Often, density differences between niosomes and the external phase are smaller than that of liposomes, which make separation by centrifugation very difficult. Addition of protamine to the vesicle suspension facilitates separation during centrifugation.

Emulsion method

The oil in water (o/w) emulsion is prepared from an organic solution of surfactant, cholesterol, and an aqueous solution of the drug. [26],[27] The organic solvent is then evaporated, leaving niosomes dispersed in the aqueous phase.

Lipid injection method

This method does not require expensive organic phase. Here, the mixture of lipids and surfactant is first melted and then injected into a highly agitated heated aqueous phase containing dissolved drug. Here, the drug can be dissolved in molten lipid and the mixture will be injected into agitated, heated aqueous phase containing surfactant.

Niosome preparation using Micelle

Niosomes may also be formed from a mixed micellar solution by the use of enzymes. A mixed micellar solution of C16 G2, dicalcium hydrogen phosphate, polyoxyethylene cholesteryl sebacetate diester (PCSD) converts to a niosome dispersion when incubated with esterases. PCSD is cleaved by the esterases to yield polyoxyethylene, sebacic acid and cholesterol. Cholesterol in combination with C16 G2 and DCP then yields C16 G2 niosomes.

Characterisation of niosomes


Shape of niosomal vesicles is assumed to be spherical, and their mean diameter can be determined by using laser light scattering method. [28] Also, diameter of these vesicles can be determined by using electron microscopy, molecular sieve chromatography, ultracentrifugation, photon correlation microscopy and optical microscopy [29],[30] and freeze fracture electron microscopy. Freeze thawing of niosomes increases the vesicle diameter, which might be attributed to a fusion of vesicles during the cycle.

Bilayer formation

Assembly of non-ionic surfactants to form a bilayer vesicle is characterised by an X-cross formation under light polarisation microscopy. [31]

Number of lamellae

This is determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. [29]

Membrane rigidity

Membrane rigidity can be measured by means of mobility of fluorescence probe as a function of temperature. [31]

Entrapment efficiency

After preparing niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated and the drug remained entrapped in niosomes is determined by complete vesicle disruption using 50% n-propanol or 0.1% Triton X-100 and analysing the resultant solution by appropriate assay method for the drug. [32] It can be represented as:

Entrapment efficiency (EF) = (Amount entrapped / total amount) Χ 100

In vitro Release Study

A method of in vitro release rate study was reported with the help of dialysis tubing. [33] A dialysis sac was washed and soaked in distilled water. The vesicle suspension was pipetted into a bag made up of the tubing and sealed. The bag containing the vesicles was then placed in 200 ml buffer solution in a 250 ml beaker with constant shaking at 25°C or 37°C. At various time intervals, the buffer was analysed for the drug content by an appropriate assay method. In another method, isoniazid-encapsulated niosomes were separated by gel filtration on Sephadex G- 50 powder kept in double distilled water for 48 h for swelling. [34] At first, 1 ml of prepared niosome suspension was placed on the top of the column and elution was carried out using normal saline. Niosomes encapsulated isoniazid elutes out first as a slightly dense, white opalescent suspension followed by free drug. Separated niosomes were filled in a dialysis tube to which a sigma dialysis sac was attached to one end. The dialysis tube was suspended in phosphate buffer of pH (7.4), stirred with a magnetic stirrer, and samples were withdrawn at specific time intervals and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.

In vivo Release Study

Albino rats were used for this study. These rats were subdivided with groups. Niosomal suspension used for

in vivo study was injected intravenously (through tail vein) using appropriate disposal syringe.

Factors Affecting Physico-Chemical Properties of Niosomes

Various factors that affect the physico-chemical properties of niosomes are discussed further.

Choice of surfactants and main additives

A surfactant used for preparation of niosomes must have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. The hydrophobic tail may consist of one or two alkyl or perfluoroalkyl groups or, in some cases, a single steroidal group. [35] The ether-type surfactants with single-chain alkyl tail is more toxic than corresponding dialkyl ether chain. The ester-type surfactants are chemically less stable than ether-type surfactants and the former is less toxic than the latter due to ester-linked surfactant degraded by esterases to triglycerides and fatty acid in vivo.[36] The surfactants with alkyl chain length from C12 to C18 are suitable for preparation of noisome. Span series surfactants having HLB number between 4 and 8 can form vesicles. [37] Different types of non-ionic surfactants with examples are given in [Table 1]. [38]
Table 1 :Different types of non-ionic surfactants

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The stable niosomes can be prepared with addition of different additives along with surfactants and drugs. The niosomes formed have a number of morphologies and their permeability and stability properties can be altered by manipulating membrane characteristics by different additives. In case of polyhedral niosomes formed from C16G2, the shape of these polyhedral niosomes remains unaffected by adding low amount of solulan C24 (cholesteryl poly-24-oxyethylene ether), which prevents aggregation due to development of steric hindrance. In contrast, addition of C16G2:cholesterol:solulan (49:49:2) results in formation of spherical niosomes. [39] The mean size of niosomes is influenced by membrane composition. Addition of cholesterol molecule to niosomal system makes the membrane rigid and reduces leakage of drug from the noisome. [40]

Temperature of hydration

Hydration temperature influences the shape and size of the niosome. For ideal condition, it should be above the gel to liquid phase transition temperature of system. Temperature change in the niosomal system affects assembly of surfactants into vesicles and also induces vesicle shape transformation. [35],[39] A polyhedral vesicle formed by C16G2:solulan C24 (91:9) at 25°C, on heating, transforms into spherical vesicle at 48°C, but on cooling from 55°C, the vesicle produces a cluster of smaller spherical niosomes at 49°C before changing into polyhedral structures at 35°C. In contrast, the vesicle formed by C16G2:cholesterol:solulan C24 (49:49:2) shows no shape transformation on heating or cooling. [27] Along with the above-mentioned factors, the volume of hydration medium and time of hydration of niosomes are also critical factors. Improper selection of these factors may result in the formation of fragile niosomes or creation of drug leakage problems.

Nature of encapsulated drug

The physico-chemical properties of encapsulated drug influence charge and rigidity of the niosome bilayer. The drug interacts with surfactant head groups and develops the charge that creates mutual repulsion between surfactant bilayers, and hence increases vesicle size. [29] The aggregation of vesicles is prevented due to the charge development on bilayer. The effect of the nature of drug on formation vesicle is given in [Table 2].
Table 2 :Effect of the nature of drug on the formation of niosomes

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Factors affecting vesicles size, entrapment efficiency, and release characteristics


Entrapment of drug in niosomes increases vesicle size, probably by interaction of solute with surfactant head groups, increasing the charge and mutual repulsion of the surfactant bilayers, thereby increasing vesicle size. In polyoxyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated vesicles, some drug is entrapped in the long PEG chains, thus reducing the tendency to increase the size. The hydrophilic lipophilic balance of the drug affects the degree of entrapment.

Amount and type of surfactant

The mean size of niosomes increases proportionally with increase in the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of surfactants such as Span 85 (HLB 1.8) to Span 20 (HLB 8.6) because the surface free energy decreases with an increase in hydrophobicity of surfactants. [41] The bilayers of the vesicles are either in the so-called liquid state or in gel state, depending on the temperature, the type of lipid or surfactant and the presence of other components such as cholesterol. In the gel state, alkyl chains are present in a well ordered structure, and in the liquid state, the structure of the bilayers is more disordered. The surfactants and lipids are characterised by the gel-liquid phase transition temperature (TC). Phase transition temperature (TC) of surfactants also affects entrapment efficiency, ie, Span 60 having higher TC provides better entrapment.

Cholesterol content and charge

Inclusion of cholesterol in niosomes increases its hydrodynamic diameter and entrapment efficiency. In general, the action of cholesterol is twofold. On one hand, cholesterol increases the chain order of liquid state bilayers, and, on the other, it decreases the chain order of gel state bilayers. At a high cholesterol concentration, the gel state is transformed to a liquid-ordered phase. An increase in cholesterol content of the bilayers resulted in a decrease in the release rate of encapsulated material, and therefore an increase in the rigidity of the resulting bilayers. The presence of charge tends to increase the interlamellar distance between successive bilayers in multilamellar vesicle structure and leads to greater overall entrapped volume. [41]

Methods of Preparation

Hand shaking method forms vesicles with greater diameter (0.35-13 nm) compared to the ether injection method (50-1,000 nm). Small-sized niosomes can be produced by Reverse Phase Evaporation (REV) method. Microfluidisation method gives greater uniformity and small-sized vesicles.

Resistance to osmotic stress

Addition of a hypertonic salt solution to a suspension of niosomes brings about reduction in diameter. In hypotonic salt solution, there is initial slow release with slight swelling of vesicles, probably due to inhibition of eluting fluid from vesicles, followed by faster release, which may be due to mechanical loosening of vesicles structure under osmotic stress. [2],[42]

[Table 3] lists drugs that have been used in animal study through different routes.
Table 3 :Drugs used in niosomal delivery

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   Conclusion Top

Recent advancements in the field of scientific research have resulted in the endorsement of small molecules such as proteins and vaccines as a major class of therapeutic agents. These, however, pose numerous drug-associated challenges such as poor bioavailability, suitable route of drug delivery, physical and chemical instability and potentially serious side effects. Opinions of the usefulness of niosomes in the delivery of proteins and biologicals can be unsubstantiated with a wide scope in encapsulating toxic drugs such as anti-AIDS drugs, anti-cancer drugs, and anti-viral drugs. It provides a promising carrier system in comparison with ionic drug carriers, which are relatively toxic and unsuitable. However, the technology utilised in niosomes is still in its infancy. Hence, researches are going on to develop a suitable technology for large production because it is a promising targeted drug delivery system.

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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83 Nanocosmeceuticals for the management of ageing: Rigors and Vigors
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2021; : 102448
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84 Topical lipid nanocarriers for management of psoriasis-an overview
Varunesh Sanjay Tambe,Avni Nautiyal,Sarika Wairkar
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2021; 64: 102671
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85 Impact of phospholipids, surfactants and cholesterol selection on the performance of transfersomes vesicles using medical nebulizers for pulmonary drug delivery
Iftikhar Khan,Rachel Needham,Sakib Yousaf,Chahinez Houacine,Yamir Islam,Ruba Bnyan,Sajid Khan Sadozai,Mohamed A. Elrayess,Abdelbary Elhissi
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2021; 66: 102822
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86 Role of nanotechnology in the world of cosmetology: A review
Diane J. Manikanika,J. Kumar,S. Jaswal
Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;
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87 Advent of nanomaterial in modern health science and ayurveda
S. Roopashree,J. Anitha,S. Rashmi
Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;
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88 Copper Nanoparticles in Membrane Mimicking Vesicles-Synthesis and Catalytic Activity
Suman Mandal,Swati De
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society. 2021; : 100061
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89 Soft materials as biological and artificial membranes
Shukun Tang,Zahra Davoudi,Guangtian Wang,Zihao Xu,Tanzeel Rehman,Aleksander Prominski,Bozhi Tian,Kaitlin M. Bratlie,Haisheng Peng,Qun Wang
Chemical Society Reviews. 2021;
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90 Why do few drug delivery systems to combat neglected tropical diseases reach the market? An analysis from the technology’s stages
Jabson Herber Profiro de Oliveira,Igor Eduardo Silva Arruda,José Izak Ribeiro de Araújo,Luise Lopes Chaves,Mônica Felts de La Rocca Soares,José Lamartine Soares-Sobrinho
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2021;
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91 Solubility enhancement, formulation development and antifungal activity of luliconazole niosomal gel-based system
Ashish Kumar Garg,Balaji Maddiboyina,Mohammed Hamed Saeed Alqarni,Aftab Alam,Hibah M. Aldawsari,Pinki Rawat,Sima Singh,Prashant Kesharwani
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. 2021; : 1
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92 Oral Bioavailability Improvement of Tailored Rosuvastatin Loaded Niosomal Nanocarriers to Manage Ischemic Heart Disease: Optimization, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies
Qiang Liu,Jing Xu,Kun Liao,Na Tang
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2021; 22(2)
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93 Effects of cefazolin-containing niosome nanoparticles against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formed on chronic wounds
Mahdi Zafari,Mahsa Adibi,Mohsen Chiani,Negin Bolourchi,Seyed Mahmoud Barzi,Mohammad Sadegh Shams Nosrati,Zeinab Bahari,Parisa Shirvani,Kambiz Akbari Noghabi,Mojgan Ebadi,Nazanin Rahimirad,Morvarid Shafiei
Biomedical Materials. 2021; 16(3): 035001
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94 Nanotechnology in cosmetics pros and cons
Rachana Yadwade,Saee Gharpure,Balaprasad Ankamwar
Nano Express. 2021; 2(2): 022003
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95 The revolution of cosmeceuticals delivery by using nanotechnology: A narrative review of advantages and side effects
Maha N. Abu Hajleh,Rana Abu-Huwaij,Ali AL-Samydai,Lidia Kamal Al-Halaseh,Emad A. Al-Dujaili
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 2021;
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96 Phytoniosomes: An Emergent Strategy for Herbal Drug Delivery System
Priya Kumari, Shaweta Sharma, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Mohd Aftab Alam
Current Nanomedicine. 2021; 11(3): 149
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97 Evaluation of Natural Bioactive-Derived Punicalagin Niosomes in Skin-Aging Processes Accelerated by Oxidant and Ultraviolet Radiation
Ebtesam A Mohamad,Aya A Aly,Aya A Khalaf,Mona I Ahmed,Reham M Kamel,Sherouk M Abdelnaby,Yasmine H Abdelzaher,Marize G Sedrak,Shaker A Mousa
Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2021; Volume 15: 3151
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98 A Critical Review of the Use of Surfactant-Coated Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine and Food Nanotechnology
Taiki Miyazawa,Mayuko Itaya,Gregor C Burdeos,Kiyotaka Nakagawa,Teruo Miyazawa
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2021; Volume 16: 3937
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99 Skin Care Formulations and Lipid Carriers as Skin Moisturizing Agents
Panagoula Pavlou,Angeliki Siamidi,Athanasia Varvaresou,Marilena Vlachou
Cosmetics. 2021; 8(3): 89
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100 Thin-layer hydration method to prepare a green tea extract niosomal gel and its antioxidant performance
U. Chasanah,N. Mahmintari,F. Hidayah,F.A. El Maghfiroh,D. Rahmasari,R. Weka Nugraheni
European Pharmaceutical Journal. 2021; 68(1): 126
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101 Forward Precision Medicine: Micelles for Active Targeting Driven by Peptides
Filippo Prencipe,Carlo Diaferia,Filomena Rossi,Luisa Ronga,Diego Tesauro
Molecules. 2021; 26(13): 4049
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102 The Multifaceted Role of Curcumin in Advanced Nanocurcumin Form in the Treatment and Management of Chronic Disorders
Priti Tagde, Pooja Tagde, Fahadul Islam, Sandeep Tagde, Muddaser Shah, Zareen Delawar Hussain, Md. Habibur Rahman, Agnieszka Najda, Ibtesam S. Alanazi, Mousa O. Germoush, Hanan R. H. Mohamed, Mardi M. Algandaby, Mohammed Z. Nasrullah, Natalia Kot, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim
Molecules. 2021; 26(23): 7109
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103 Experimental research in topical psoriasis therapy (Review)
Diana Ni?escu,Alina Mu?etescu,Maria Ni?escu,Monica Costescu,Oana-Andreia Coman
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2021; 22(3)
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104 Developing Actively Targeted Nanoparticles to Fight Cancer: Focus on Italian Research
Monica Argenziano,Silvia Arpicco,Paola Brusa,Roberta Cavalli,Daniela Chirio,Franco Dosio,Marina Gallarate,Elena Peira,Barbara Stella,Elena Ugazio
Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(10): 1538
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105 Emerging Treatment Strategies for Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Complications: An Update
Vijay Mishra,Pallavi Nayak,Mayank Sharma,Aqel Albutti,Ameen S. S. Alwashmi,Mohammad Abdullah Aljasir,Noorah Alsowayeh,Murtaza M. Tambuwala
Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(10): 1568
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106 Intranasal Zolmitriptan-Loaded Bilosomes with Extended Nasal Mucociliary Transit Time for Direct Nose to Brain Delivery
Mai M. El Taweel, Mona H. Aboul-Einien, Mohammed A. Kassem, Nermeen A. Elkasabgy
Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(11): 1828
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107 An Overview on Niosomes: As an Auspesious Drug Delivery System on the Bases of Application
Diksha Diksha,Prevesh Kumar,Navneet Verma
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; : 2896
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108 Development of Provesicular Nanodelivery System of Curcumin as a Safe and Effective Antiviral Agent: Statistical Optimization, In Vitro Characterization, and Antiviral Effectiveness
Farid A. Badria,Abdelaziz E. Abdelaziz,Amira H. Hassan,Abdullah A. Elgazar,Eman A. Mazyed
Molecules. 2020; 25(23): 5668
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109 Topical Administration of Terpenes Encapsulated in Nanostructured Lipid-Based Systems
Elwira Lason
Molecules. 2020; 25(23): 5758
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110 Niosomal Drug Delivery Systems for Ocular Disease—Recent Advances and Future Prospects
Saliha Durak,Monireh Esmaeili Rad,Abuzer Alp Yetisgin,Hande Eda Sutova,Ozlem Kutlu,Sibel Cetinel,Ali Zarrabi
Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(6): 1191
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111 Current Insights for the Management of Acne in the Modern Era
Neha Singh,Apoorva Singh,Kalpana Pandey,Kalpana Nimisha
Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery. 2020; 15(1): 3
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112 Nanomaterials for Skin Delivery of Cosmeceuticals and Pharmaceuticals
Eliana B. Souto,Ana Rita Fernandes,Carlos Martins-Gomes,Tiago E. Coutinho,Alessandra Durazzo,Massimo Lucarini,Selma B. Souto,Amélia M. Silva,Antonello Santini
Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(5): 1594
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113 Emerging Nanopharmaceuticals and Nanonutraceuticals in Cancer Management
Lavinia Salama,Elizabeth R. Pastor,Tyler Stone,Shaker A. Mousa
Biomedicines. 2020; 8(9): 347
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114 New Insights on Unique Features and Role of Nanostructured Materials in Cosmetics
Muhammad Bilal,Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
Cosmetics. 2020; 7(2): 24
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The Challenge of Nanovesicles for Selective Topical Delivery for Acne Treatment: Enhancing Absorption Whilst Avoiding Toxicity

Antonia Mancuso,Maria Chiara Cristiano,Massimo Fresta,Donatella Paolino
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2020; Volume 15: 9197
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In vitro Characterization and Release Studies of Combined Nonionic Surfactant-Based Vesicles for the Prolonged Delivery of an Immunosuppressant Model Drug

Akhtar Rasul,Muhammad Imran Khan,Mujeeb Rehman,Ghulam Abbas,Nosheen Aslam,Shabbir Ahmad,Khizar Abbas,Pervaiz Akhtar Shah,Muhammad Iqbal,Ali Mohammed Ahmed Al Subari,Talal Shaheer,Shahid Shah
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2020; Volume 15: 7937
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Assessment of a New Ginsenoside Rh2 Nanoniosomal Formulation for Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy on Prostate Cancer: An in vitro Study

Hadi Zare-Zardini,Ashraf Alemi,Asghar Taheri-Kafrani,Seyed Ahmad Hosseini,Hossein Soltaninejad,Amir Ali Hamidieh,Mojtaba Haghi Karamallah,Majid Farrokhifar,Mohammad Farrokhifar
Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2020; Volume 14: 3315
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Formulation of Nanospanlastics as a Promising Approach for ?Improving the Topical Delivery of a Natural Leukotriene Inhibitor (3-?Acetyl-11-Keto-ß-Boswellic Acid): Statistical Optimization, in vitro ?Characterization, and ex vivo Permeation Study

Farid Badria,Eman Mazyed
Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2020; Volume 14: 3697
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119 Formulation, Characterization and In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Capecitabine Loaded Niosomes
Parth Patel,Tejas Barot,Pratik Kulkarni
Current Drug Delivery. 2020; 17(3): 257
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120 The Scope and Challenges of Vesicular Carrier-Mediated Delivery of Docetaxel for the Management of Cancer
Charu Misra,Kaisar Raza,Amit Kumar Goyal
Current Drug Delivery. 2020; 17(10): 874
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121 Niosome-based hydrogel as a potential drug delivery system for topical and transdermal applications
Fiammetta Nigro,Cristal dos Santos Cerqueira Pinto,Elisabete Pereira dos Santos,Claudia Regina Elias Mansur
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials. 2020; : 1
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122 Proniosomes as a carrier system for transdermal delivery of clozapine
Fahad Khan Tareen,Kifayat Ullah Shah,Naveed Ahmad,Naveed Asim.ur.Rehman,Shefaat Ullah Shah,Naseem Ullah
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 2020; : 1
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123 An Overview of Properties and Analytical Methods for Lycopene in Organic Nanocarriers
Gabriela Corrêa Carvalho,Rafael Miguel Sábio,Marlus Chorilli
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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124 Design and development of a proniosomal transdermal drug delivery system of caffeine for management of migraine: In vitro characterization, 131I-radiolabeling and in vivo biodistribution studies
Mohamed H. Aboumanei,Ashgan. F. Mahmoud
Process Biochemistry. 2020; 97: 201
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125 A new formulation of hydrophobin-coated niosome as a drug carrier to cancer cells
Mahmood Barani,Mohammad Mirzaei,Masoud Torkzadeh-Mahani,Azadeh Lohrasbi-Nejad,Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi
Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2020; : 110975
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126 Development of dental implant coating with minocycline-loaded niosome for antibacterial application
Nattarat Wongsuwan,Anupma Dwivedi,Salunya Tancharoen,Norased Nasongkla
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; : 101555
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127 Niosomes: A review on niosomal research in the last decade
Peeyush Bhardwaj,Purnima Tripathi,Rishikesh Gupta,Sonia Pandey
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; 56: 101581
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128 Innovation of testosome as a green formulation for the transdermal delivery of testosterone enanthate
Mahgol Tajbakhsh,Majid Saeedi,Katayoun Morteza-Semnani,Jafar Akbari,Ali Nokhodchi
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; 57: 101685
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129 Letrozole-loaded nonionic surfactant vesicles prepared via a slurry-based proniosome technology: Formulation development and characterization
Nada Khudair,Abdelali Agouni,Mohamed A. Elrayess,Mohammad Najlah,Husam M. Younes,Abdelbary Elhissi
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; : 101721
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130 Formulation optimization and in vitro characterization of rifampicin and ceftriaxone dual drug loaded niosomes with high energy probe sonication technique
Daulat Haleem Khan,Sajid Bashir,Muhammad Imran Khan,Patrícia Figueiredo,Hélder A. Santos,Leena Peltonen
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; : 101763
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131 Niosomes for nose-to-brain delivery of bromocriptine: Formulation development, efficacy evaluation and toxicity profiling
V.G. Sita,Dhananjay Jadhav,Pradeep Vavia
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; 58: 101791
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132 Tailoring Solulan C24 based Niosomes for Transdermal Delivery of Donepezil: In vitro characterization, Evaluation of pH sensitivity, and Microneedle-assisted Ex vivo Permeation Studies
Archana S. Nayak,Srivani Chodisetti,Shivaprasad Gadag,Usha Yogendra Nayak,Srinikethan Govindan,Keyur Raval
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; : 101945
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133 Nanoparticles for topical drug delivery: Potential for skin cancer
Vinu Krishnan,Samir Mitragotri
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2020;
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134 Noninvasive transdermal delivery of liposomes by weak electric current
Mahadi Hasan,Anowara Khatun,Tatsuya Fukuta,Kentaro Kogure
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2020;
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135 Lipid-based nanoparticle technologies for liver targeting
Roland Böttger,Griffin Pauli,Po-Han Chao,Nojoud Al-Fayez,Lukas Hohenwarter,Shyh-Dar Li
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2020;
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136 Chitosan-based particulate systems for drug and vaccine delivery in the treatment and prevention of neglected tropical diseases
Sevda Senel,Selin Yüksel
Drug Delivery and Translational Research. 2020;
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137 Curcumin Loaded in Niosomal Nanoparticles Improved the Anti-tumor Effects of Free Curcumin on Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells: an In Vitro Study
Sajad Sahab-Negah,Fatemeh Ariakia,Mohammad Jalili-Nik,Amir R. Afshari,Sahar Salehi,Fariborz Samini,Ghadir Rajabzadeh,Ali Gorji
Molecular Neurobiology. 2020;
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138 Synthesis and biocompatibility of self-assembling multi-tailed resorcinarene-based supramolecular amphiphile
Imdad Ali,Salim Saifullah,Muhammed Imran,Jan Nisar,Ibrahim Javed,Muhammad Raza Shah
Colloid and Polymer Science. 2020;
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139 Nanomedicine Approaches to Negotiate Local Biobarriers for Topical Drug Delivery
Salman Ahmad Mustfa,Eleonora Maurizi,John McGrath,Ciro Chiappini
Advanced Therapeutics. 2020; : 2000160
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140 Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfanilamide-Based Nonionic Surfactants and Evaluation of Their Nano-Vesicular Drug Loading Application
Imdad Ali,Salim Saifullah,Babiker M. El-Haj,Heyam Saad Ali,Saira Yasmeen,Muhammad Imran,Jan Nisar,Muhammad Raza Shah
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents. 2020;
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141 Topical film prepared with Rhus verniciflua extract-loaded pullulan hydrogel for atopic dermatitis treatment
Ji Heun Jeong,Seung Keun Back,Jong Hun An,Nam-Seob Lee,Do-Kyung Kim,Chun Soo Na,Young-Gil Jeong,Seung Yun Han
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2019;
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142 Nanomedicines towards targeting intracellular Mtb for the treatment of tuberculosis
Samantha Donnellan,Marco Giardiello
Journal of Interdisciplinary Nanomedicine. 2019;
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143 Synthesis of Biocompatible Double-Tailed Nonionic Surfactants and Their Investigation for Niosomal Drug-Loading Applications
Imdad Ali,Muhammad Raza Shah,Said Nadeem,Heyam Saad Ali,Salim Saifullah,Farid Ahmed,Muhammad Imran
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents. 2019;
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144 A Review on Bioengineering Approaches to Insulin Delivery: A Pharmaceutical and Engineering Perspective
Zahra Baghban Taraghdari,Rana Imani,Fatemeh Mohabatpour
Macromolecular Bioscience. 2019; : 1800458
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145 Antileishmanial activity and immune modulatory effects of benzoxonium chloride and its entrapped forms in niosome on Leishmania tropica
Maryam Hakimi Parizi,Abbas Pardakhty,Iraj sharifi,Saeedeh Farajzadeh,Mohammad Hossein Daie Parizi,Hamid Sharifi,Ali Reza Keyhani,Mahshid Mostafavi,Mehdi Bamorovat,Daryoush Ghaffari
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2019;
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146 Oligonucleotide therapy: An emerging focus area for drug delivery in chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases
Meenu Mehta,Meenu Deeksha,Devesh Tewari,Gaurav Gupta,Rajendra Awasthi,Harjeet Singh,Parijat Pandey,Dinesh Kumar Chellappan,Ridhima Wadhwa,Trudi Collet,Philip M. Hansbro,S Rajesh Kumar,Lakshmi Thangavelu,Poonam Negi,Kamal Dua,Saurabh Satija
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2019; 308: 206
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147 Niosomal formulation of amphotericin B alone and in combination with glucantime: In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal effects
Mahshid Mostafavi,Iraj Sharifi,Saeedeh Farajzadeh,Payam Khazaeli,Hamid Sharifi,Elnaz Pourseyedi,Sina Kakooei,Mehdi Bamorovat,Alireza Keyhani,Maryam Hakimi Parizi,Ahmad Khosravi,Ali Khamesipour
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2019; 116: 108942
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148 Nanotechnological breakthroughs in the development of topical phytocompounds-based formulations
Ana Cláudia Santos,Dora Rodrigues,Joana A.D. Sequeira,Irina Pereira,Ana Simões,Diana Costa,Diana Peixoto,Gustavo Costa,Francisco Veiga
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2019; : 118787
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149 Process optimization of ecological probe sonication technique for production of rifampicin loaded niosomes
Daulat Haleem Khan,Sajid Bashir,Patrícia Figueiredo,Hélder A. Santos,Muhammad Imran Khan,Leena Peltonen
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2019; 50: 27
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150 A novel plier-like gemini cationic niosome for nucleic acid delivery
Supusson Pengnam,Prasopchai Patrojanasophon,Theerasak Rojanarata,Tanasait Ngawhirunpat,Boon-ek Yingyongnarongkul,Widchaya Radchatawedchakoon,Praneet Opanasopit
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2019;
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151 Do niosomes have a place in the field of drug delivery?
Rita Muzzalupo,Elisabetta Mazzotta
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 2019; : 1
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152 Enhanced nuclear translocation and activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in THP-1 monocytic cell line by a novel niosomal formulation of indole-3-carbinol
Neda Abbaspour Sani,Mahsa Hasani,Anvarsadat Kianmehr,Saeed Mohammadi,Mehdi Sheikh Arabi,Yaghoub Yazdani
Journal of Liposome Research. 2019; : 1
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153 Preparation and evaluation of transdermal naproxen niosomes: formulation optimization to preclinical anti-inflammatory assessment on murine model
Dibyalochan Mohanty,Miriyala Jhansi Rani,M. Akiful Haque,Vasudha Bakshi,Mohammed Asadullah Jahangir,Syed Sarim Imam,Sadaf Jamal Gilani
Journal of Liposome Research. 2019; : 1
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154 In Vitro Release Test of Nano-drug Delivery Systems Based on Analytical and Technological Perspectives
Emirhan Nemutlu,Ipek Eroglu,Hakan Eroglu,Sedef Kir
Current Analytical Chemistry. 2019; 15(4): 373
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155 Nanotechnology: Revolutionizing the Science of Drug Delivery
Mohini Mishra,Pramod Kumar,Jitendra Singh Rajawat,Ruchi Malik,Gitanjali Sharma,Amit Modgil
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2019; 24(43): 5086
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156 Nanotechnology Advanced Strategies for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Amira Mohamed Mohsen
Current Drug Targets. 2019; 20(10): 995
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157 Lipid-Based Nanocarriers for Lymphatic Transportation
Nikhar Vishwakarma,Anamika Jain,Rajeev Sharma,Nishi Mody,Sonal Vyas,Suresh P. Vyas
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2019; 20(2)
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158 Formulation and optimisation of novel transfersomes for sustained release of local anaesthetic
Ruba Bnyan,Iftikhar Khan,Touraj Ehtezazi,Imran Saleem,Sarah Gordon,Francis O’Neill,Matthew Roberts
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2019;
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159 Microbial biosurfactants: current trends and applications in agricultural and biomedical industries
P.J. Naughton,R. Marchant,V. Naughton,I.M. Banat
Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2019;
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160 Nanostructured Lipid Carriers of Pioglitazone Loaded Collagen/Chitosan Composite Scaffold for Diabetic Wound Healing
Jawahar Natarajan,Bharat Kumar Reddy Sanapalli,Mehjabeen Bano,Sachin Kumar Singh,Monica Gulati,Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri
Advances in Wound Care. 2019;
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161 Synthesis of Nitrogen Containing Biocompatible Non-ionic Surfactants and Investigation for Their Self-Assembly Based Nano-Scale Vesicles
Imdad Ali,Hiba Manzoor,Muhamad Imran,Muhamad Shafiulah,Muhammad Raza Shah
Tenside Surfactants Detergents. 2019; 56(1): 35
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162 Antileishmanial Activity of Niosomal Combination Forms of Tioxolone along with Benzoxonium Chloride against Leishmania tropica
Maryam Hakimi Parizi,Saeedeh Farajzadeh,Iraj Sharifi,Abbas Pardakhty,Mohammad Hossein Daie Parizi,Hamid Sharifi,Ehsan Salarkia,Saeid Hassanzadeh
The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2019; 57(4): 359
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163 Cationic Niosomes as Non-Viral Vehicles for Nucleic Acids: Challenges and Opportunities in Gene Delivery
Santiago Grijalvo,Gustavo Puras,Jon Zárate,Myriam Sainz-Ramos,Nuseibah A. L. Qtaish,Tania López,Mohamed Mashal,Noha Attia,David Díaz,Ramon Pons,Eduardo Fernández,José Luis Pedraz,Ramon Eritja
Pharmaceutics. 2019; 11(2): 50
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164 PEGylated Plier-Like Cationic Niosomes on Gene Delivery in HeLa Cells
Supusson Pengnam,Samarwadee Plianwong,Kanokwan Singpanna,Nattisa Ni-yomtham,Widchaya Radchatawedchakoon,Boon Ek Yingyongnarongkul,Praneet Opanasopit
Key Engineering Materials. 2019; 819: 151
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165 Use of Curcumin, a Natural Polyphenol for Targeting Molecular Pathways in Treating Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases
Panchanan Maiti,Gary Dunbar
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(6): 1637
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166 Brief Effect of a Small Hydrophobic Drug (Cinnarizine) on the Physicochemical Characterisation of Niosomes Produced by Thin-Film Hydration and Microfluidic Methods
Li Yeo,Temidayo Olusanya,Cheng Chaw,Amal Elkordy
Pharmaceutics. 2018; 10(4): 185
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167 Role of Nanotechnology in Cosmeceuticals: A Review of Recent Advances
Shreya Kaul,Neha Gulati,Deepali Verma,Siddhartha Mukherjee,Upendra Nagaich
Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2018; 2018: 1
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168 Niosomes: a review of their structure, properties, methods of preparation, and medical applications
Pei Ling Yeo,Chooi Ling Lim,Soi Moi Chye,Anna Pick Kiong Ling,Rhun Yian Koh
Asian Biomedicine. 2018; 11(4): 301
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169 Rapid on-Chip Assembly of Niosomes: Batch versus Continuous Flow Reactors
Sara Garcia-Salinas,Erico Himawan,Gracia Mendoza,Manuel Arruebo,Victor Sebastian
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2018;
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170 Application of different nanocarriers for encapsulation of curcumin
Zahra Rafiee,Mohammad Nejatian,Marjan Daeihamed,Seid Mahdi Jafari
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2018; : 1
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171 Surfactant Effects on Lipid-Based Vesicles Properties
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172 Influence of serum on DNA protection ability and transfection efficiency of cationic lipid-based nanoparticles for gene delivery
Supusson Pengnam,Lalita Leksantikul,Prasopchai Tonglairoum,Praneet Opanasopit,Nattisa Ni-yomtham,Boon-Ek Yingyongnarongkul,Samarwadee Plianwong,C. Hamontree
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173 Propolis-based niosomes as oromuco-adhesive films: A randomized clinical trial of a therapeutic drug delivery platform for the treatment of oral recurrent aphthous ulcers
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174 Micro-/nano-sized delivery systems of ginsenosides for improved systemic bioavailability
Hyeongmin Kim,Jong Hyuk Lee,Jee Eun Kim,Young Su Kim,Choong Ho Ryu,Hong Joo Lee,Hye Min Kim,Hyojin Jeon,Hyo-Joong Won,Ji-Yun Lee,Jaehwi Lee
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175 A Road to Bring Brij52 Back to Attention: Shear Stress Sensitive Brij52 Niosomal Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery to Obstructed Blood Vessels
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176 Encapsulation of oils and fragrances by core-in-shell structures from silica particles, polymers and surfactants: The brick-and-mortar concept
Gergana M. Radulova,Tatiana G. Slavova,Peter A. Kralchevsky,Elka S. Basheva,Krastanka G. Marinova,Krassimir D. Danov
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177 Thymoquinone-based nanotechnology for cancer therapy: promises and challenges
Farah Ballout,Zeina Habli,Omar Nasser Rahal,Maamoun Fatfat,Hala-Gali Muhtasib
Drug Discovery Today. 2018;
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178 Nanoparticulate-based drug delivery systems for small molecule anti-diabetic drugs: An emerging paradigm for effective therapy
Siddharth Uppal,Kishan S. Italiya,Deepak Chitkara,Anupama Mittal
Acta Biomaterialia. 2018;
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179 Ocular delivery of proteins and peptides: Challenges and novel formulation approaches
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180 Magnetic delivery of antitumor carboplatin by using PEGylated-Niosomes
Fereshteh Davarpanah,Aliakbar Khalili Yazdi,Mahmood Barani,Mohammad Mirzaei,Masoud Torkzadeh-Mahani
DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;
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181 Embelin-loaded oral niosomes ameliorate streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats
Md. Shamsir Alam,Abdul Ahad,Lubna Abidin,Mohd. Aqil,Showkat Rasool Mir,Mohd Mujeeb
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 97: 1514
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182 Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis & oxidative stress complexity: Emerging need for novel drug delivery approaches
Kamal Dua,Vamshi Krishna Rapalli,Shakti Dhar Shukla,Gautam Singhvi,Madhur D. Shastri,Dinesh Kumar Chellappan,Saurabh Satija,Meenu Mehta,Monica Gulati,Terezinha De Jesus Andreoli Pinto,Gaurav Gupta,Philip M. Hansbro
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 107: 1218
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183 Formulation and optimization of lacidipine loaded niosomal gel for transdermal delivery: In-vitro characterization and in-vivo activity
Mohd Qumbar,Mohd Ameeduzzafar,Syed Sarim Imam,Javed Ali,Javed Ahmad,Asgar Ali
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 93: 255
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184 Nanotechnology based approaches for anti-diabetic drugs delivery
Prashant Kesharwani,Bapi Gorain,Siew Yeng Low,Siew Ann Tan,Emily Chai Siaw Ling,Yin Khai Lim,Chuan Ming Chin,Pei Yee Lee,Chun Mey Lee,Chun Haw Ooi,Hira Choudhury,Manisha Pandey
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2017;
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185 Synthesis of Sulfur-Based Biocompatible Nonionic Surfactants and Their Nano-Vesicle Drug Delivery
Imdad Ali,Muhammad Raza Shah,Muhammad Imran,Muhammad Shafiullah
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents. 2017;
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186 Retinal gene delivery enhancement by lycopene incorporation into cationic niosomes based on DOTMA and polysorbate 60
Mohamed Mashal,Noha Attia,Gustavo Puras,Gema Martínez-Navarrete,Eduardo Fernández,Jose Luis Pedraz
Journal of Controlled Release. 2017; 254: 55
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187 Novel carters and targeted approaches: Way out for rheumatoid arthritis quandrum
Shikha Srivastava,Deependra Singh,Satish Patel,Arun K.S. Parihar,Manju R. Singh
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188 DOE Optimization of Nano-based Carrier of Pregabalin as Hydrogel: New Therapeutic & Chemometric Approaches for Controlled Drug Delivery Systems
Mona G. Arafa,Bassam M. Ayoub
Scientific Reports. 2017; 7: 41503
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189 Stem cell-based gene delivery mediated by cationic niosomes for bone regeneration
Noha Attia,Mohamed Mashal,Santiago Grijalvo,Ramon Eritja,Jon Zárate,Gustavo Puras,José Luis Pedraz
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. 2017;
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190 In vitro and in vivo investigation for optimization of niosomal ability for sustainment and bioavailability enhancement of diltiazem after nasal administration
H. O. Ammar,M. Haider,M. Ibrahim,N. M. El Hoffy
Drug Delivery. 2017; 24(1): 414
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191 Anti-CD123 antibody-modified niosomes for targeted delivery of daunorubicin against acute myeloid leukemia
Fu-rong Liu,Hui Jin,Yin Wang,Chen Chen,Ming Li,Sheng-jun Mao,Qiantao Wang,Hui Li
Drug Delivery. 2017; 24(1): 882
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192 pH-sensitive pHLIP® coated niosomes
Mohan C. Pereira,Monica Pianella,Da Wei,Anna Moshnikova,Carlotta Marianecci,Maria Carafa,Oleg A. Andreev,Yana K. Reshetnyak
Molecular Membrane Biology. 2017; : 1
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193 Anti-biofilm activity of a sophorolipid-amphotericin B niosomal formulation against Candida albicans
Farazul Haque,Mohammad Sajid,Swaranjit Singh Cameotra,Mani Shankar Battacharyya
Biofouling. 2017; : 1
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194 Enhanced oral bioavailability and sustained delivery of glimepiride via niosomal encapsulation: in-vitro characterization and in-vivo evaluation
Amira Mohamed Mohsen,Mona Mahmoud AbouSamra,Shaimaa Ahmed ElShebiney
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 2017; : 1
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195 Topical Delivery of Fenoprofen Calcium via Elastic Nano-vesicular Spanlastics: Optimization Using Experimental Design and In Vivo Evaluation
Dalia Ali Farghaly,Ahmed A. Aboelwafa,Manal Y. Hamza,Magdy I. Mohamed
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2017;
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196 Nanotechnology-Based Approach in Tuberculosis Treatment
Mohammad Nasiruddin,Md. Kausar Neyaz,Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment. 2017; 2017: 1
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197 Potential enhancement and targeting strategies of polymeric and lipid-based nanocarriers in dermal drug delivery
Emine Kahraman,Sevgi Güngör,Yildiz Özsoy
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198 Recent advances in amphiphilic polymers for simultaneous delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs
Chloe Martin,Noorjahan Aibani,John F Callan,Bridgeen Callan
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199 Nghiên c?u bào ch? niosome metformin
Lê Thùy Dung, Lê Thanh Phu?c, Lê Tr?ng Nghi
Can Tho University Journal of Science. 2016; 43: 10
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200 Preparation and evaluation of niosome gel containing acyclovir for enhanced dermal deposition
Shery Jacob,Anroop B. Nair,Bandar E. Al-Dhubiab
Journal of Liposome Research. 2016; : 1
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201 A single intravenous dose of novel flurbiprofen-loaded proniosome formulations provides prolonged systemic exposure and anti-inflammatory effect
Preeti Verma,Sunil Kumar Prajapati,Rajbharan Yadav,Danielle Senyschyn,Peter R Shea,Natalie L Trevaskis
Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2016;
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202 Exploring the use of nanocarrier systems to deliver the magical molecule; Curcumin and its derivatives
Mina Mehanny,Rania M. Hathout,Ahmed S. Geneidi,Samar Mansour
Journal of Controlled Release. 2016; 225: 1
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203 Advances in psoriasis physiopathology and treatments: Up to date of mechanistic insights and perspectives of novel therapies based on innovative skin drug delivery systems (ISDDS)
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Journal of Controlled Release. 2016;
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204 Development and in-vitro characterization of sorbitan monolaurate and poloxamer 184 based niosomes for oral delivery of diacerein
Muhammad Imran Khan,Asadullah Madni,Leena Peltonen
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;
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205 Niosomes: a potential tool for novel drug delivery
Rizwana Khan,Raghuveer Irchhaiya
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206 A review of solute encapsulating nanoparticles used as delivery systems with emphasis on branched amphipathic peptide capsules
Sheila M. Barros,Susan K. Whitaker,Pinakin Sukthankar,L. Adriana Avila,Sushanth Gudlur,Matt Warner,Eduardo I.C. Beltrão,John M. Tomich
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207 Engineering of a hybrid polymer-lipid nanocarrier for the nasal delivery of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: Physicochemical, molecular, microstructural, and stability evaluation
Varsha B Pokharkar,Mallika R Jolly,Dipak D Kumbhar
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;
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208 Design and optimization of topical methotrexate loaded niosomes for enhanced management of psoriasis: Application of Box–Behnken design, in-vitro evaluation and in-vivo skin deposition study
Aly A. Abdelbary,Mohamed H.H. AbouGhaly
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2015; 485(1-2): 235
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209 Development, Characterization, andIn VitroBiological Performance of Fluconazole-Loaded Microemulsions for the Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
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BioMed Research International. 2015; 2015: 1
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210 Nanotechnology-Applied Curcumin for Different Diseases Therapy
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211 Formulation of tretinoin-loaded topical proniosomes for treatment of acne:in-vitrocharacterization, skin irritation test and comparative clinical study
Salwa Abdel Rahman,Nevine Shawky Abdelmalak,Alia Badawi,Tahany Elbayoumy,Nermeen Sabry,Amany El Ramly
Drug Delivery. 2014; : 1
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212 Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery
Javed Ali,Mohd Fazil,Mohd Qumbar,Nazia Khan,Asgar Ali
Drug Delivery. 2014; : 1
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213 Vesicular system: Versatile carrier for transdermal delivery of bioactives
Deependra Singh,Madhulika Pradhan,Mukesh Nag,Manju Rawat Singh
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology. 2014; : 1
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214 Statistically designed nonionic surfactant vesicles for dermal delivery of itraconazole: Characterization and in vivo evaluation using a standardized Tinea pedis infection model
Neeraj Kumar,Shishu Goindi
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2014; 472(1-2): 224
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215 Effect of polycaprolactone on in vitro release of melatonin encapsulated niosomes in artificial and whole saliva
C. Nukulkit,A. Priprem,T. Damrongrungruang,E. Benjavongkulchai,N. Pratheepawanit Johns
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216 Branched amphiphilic peptide capsules: Cellular uptake and retention of encapsulated solutes
Pinakin Sukthankar,L. Adriana Avila,Susan K. Whitaker,Takeo Iwamoto,Alfred Morgenstern,Christos Apostolidis,Ke Liu,Robert P. Hanzlik,Ekaterina Dadachova,John M. Tomich
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217 Quantiosomes as a Multimodal Nanocarrier for Integrating Bioimaging and Carboplatin Delivery
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218 Polymer Micro- and Nanocapsules as Biological Carriers with Multifunctional Properties
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Macromolecular Bioscience. 2014; : n/a
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219 Vesicular systems in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Letha, S. and Viswanad, V.
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220 Exploring the fluorescence switching phenomenon of curcumin encapsulated niosomes: In vitro real time monitoring of curcumin release to cancer cells
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RSC Advances. 2013; 3(8): 2553-2557
221 Nanotechnology in corneal neovascularization therapy - A review
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Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013; 29(2): 124-134
222 Formulation and evaluation of metformin hydrochloride-loaded niosomes as controlled release drug delivery system
Hasan AA, Madkor H, Wageh S.
Drug Delivery. 2013; 20((3-4)): 120-126
223 Construction of hyaluronic acid noisome as functional transdermal nanocarrier for tumor therapy
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Carbohydrate Polymers. 2013; 94(1): 634-641
224 Niosomes from 80s to present: The state of the art
Carlotta Marianecci,Luisa Di Marzio,Federica Rinaldi,Christian Celia,Donatella Paolino,Franco Alhaique,Sara Esposito,Maria Carafa
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225 Construction of hyaluronic acid noisome as functional transdermal nanocarrier for tumor therapy
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226 Exploring the fluorescence switching phenomenon of curcumin encapsulated niosomes: in vitro real time monitoring of curcumin release to cancer cells
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227 Formulation and evaluation of metformin hydrochloride-loaded niosomes as controlled release drug delivery system
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228 Nanotechnology in Corneal Neovascularization Therapy—A Review
Lilian Gonzalez,Raymond J. Loza,Kyu-Yeon Han,Suhair Sunoqrot,Christy Cunningham,Patryk Purta,James Drake,Sandeep Jain,Seungpyo Hong,Jin-Hong Chang
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229 Preparation and evaluation of niosomes containing autoclavedLeishmania major: a preliminary study
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230 Niosomes: Novel sustained release nonionic stable vesicular systems — An overview
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231 Development of novel lipid carrier systems for ocular drug delivery
Jiang M, Gan L, Gan Y.
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232 Recent Trends in Niosome as Vesicular Drug Delivery System
Anchal Sankhyan, Pravin Pawar
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2012; 2(6): 20-32
233 Niosomes: Novel sustained release nonionic stable vesicular systems - An overview
Mahale NB, Thakkar PD, Mali RG, Walunj DR, Chaudhari SR.
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2012; : 46-54
234 Preparation and evaluation of niosomes containing autoclaved Leishmania major: A preliminary study
Pardakhty A, Shakibaie M, Daneshvar H, Khamesipour A, Mohammadi-Khorsand T, Forootanfar H.
Journal of Microencapsulation. 2012; 29(3): 219-224
235 Nonionic surfactant vesicular systems for effective drug delivery—an overview
Kumar GP, Rajeshwarrao P
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 2011; 1(4): 208-219
236 Provesicular niosomes gel: A novel absorption modulator for transdermal delivery
Litha T, Shoma J, John GS, Viswanad V.
International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2011; 3(3): 58-69
237 Nonionic surfactant vesicular systems for effective drug delivery—an overview
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